Form 10-K
Table of Contents

 

 

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

 

Form 10-K

(MARK ONE)

  x ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2011

or

 

  ¨ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 For the transition period from                      to                     

Commission File number 0-23621

MKS INSTRUMENTS, INC.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

 

Massachusetts    04-2277512
(State or other Jurisdiction of    (IRS Employer
Incorporation or Organization)    Identification No.)
2 Tech Drive, Suite 201, Andover, Massachusetts    01810
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)    (Zip Code)

Registrant’s Telephone Number, including area code

(978) 645-5500

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of class

 

Name of exchange on which registered

Common Stock, no par value   NASDAQ Global Select Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ¨        No  x

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ¨        No  x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x        No  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  x        No  ¨

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§ 229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.    ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

Large accelerated filer x

  

Accelerated filer ¨

 

Non-accelerated filer ¨

  Smaller reporting company ¨
   (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)            

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ¨        No  x

Aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by nonaffiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2011 based on the closing price of the registrant’s Common Stock on such date as reported by the NASDAQ Global Market: $1,385,444,483.

Number of shares outstanding of the issuer’s Common Stock, no par value, as of February 17, 2012: 52,510,320

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the definitive Proxy Statement for MKS’ Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on May 7, 2012 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.

 

 

 


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

PART I   

Item 1.

  Business      2   

Item 1A.

  Risk Factors      9   

Item 1B.

  Unresolved Staff Comments      16   

Item 2.

  Properties      16   

Item 3.

  Legal Proceedings      18   

Item 4.

  Mine Safety Disclosures      18   
PART II   

Item 5.

  Market for the Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities      19   

Item 6.

  Selected Financial Data      22   

Item 7.

  Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations      23   

Item 7A.

  Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk      38   

Item 8.

  Financial Statements and Supplementary Data      40   

Item 9.

  Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure      79   

Item 9A.

  Controls and Procedures      79   

Item 9B.

  Other Information      80   
PART III   

Item 10.

  Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance      81   

Item 11.

  Executive Compensation      81   

Item 12.

  Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters      81   

Item 13.

  Certain Relationships and Related Transactions and Director Independence      81   

Item 14.

  Principal Accountant Fees and Services      81   
PART IV   

Item 15.                    

  Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules      82   

SIGNATURES

     86   

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act. When used herein, the words “believe,” “anticipate,” “plan,” “expect,” “estimate,” “intend,” “may,” “see,” “will,” “would” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements although not all forward looking statements contain these identifying words. These forward-looking statements reflect management’s current opinions and are subject to certain risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those stated or implied. MKS assumes no obligation to update this information. Risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, those discussed in the section entitled “Risk Factors” of this annual report on Form 10-K.

PART I

 

Item 1. Business

MKS Instruments, Inc. (the “Company” or “MKS”) was founded in 1961 as a Massachusetts corporation. We are a global provider of instruments, subsystems and process control solutions that measure, control, power, monitor and analyze critical parameters of advanced manufacturing processes to improve process performance and productivity. We also provide services relating to the maintenance and repair of our products, software maintenance, installation services and training.

Our products are used in diverse markets, applications and processes and are derived from our core competencies in pressure measurement and control, materials delivery, gas composition analysis, control and information technology, power and reactive gas generation and vacuum technology. The primary markets we serve are manufacturers of semiconductor capital equipment and semiconductor devices and for other thin film applications including flat panel displays, solar cells, light emitting diodes (“LEDs”), data storage media and other advanced manufactured products. We also leverage our technology into other markets with advanced manufacturing applications including medical equipment, pharmaceutical manufacturing, energy generation and environmental monitoring.

We are managed as one operating segment. We group our products into three product groups, based upon the similarity of the product function, type of product and manufacturing processes. These three groups of products are: Instruments and Control Systems, Power and Reactive Gas Products and Vacuum Products. Our products are derived from our core competencies in pressure measurement and control, materials delivery, gas composition analysis, control and information technology, power and reactive gas generation and vacuum technology.

For 50 years, we have focused on satisfying the needs of our customers by establishing long-term, collaborative relationships. We have a diverse base of customers that includes manufacturers of semiconductor capital equipment and semiconductor devices, thin film capital equipment used in the manufacture of flat panel displays, LEDs, solar cells, data storage media and other coating applications; and other industrial, medical, pharmaceutical manufacturing, energy generation, environmental monitoring and other advanced manufacturing companies, as well as university, government and industrial research laboratories.

We file reports, proxy statements and other documents with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). You may read and copy any document we file at the SEC Headquarters at the Office of Investor Education and Assistance, 100 F Street, NE, Washington, D.C. 20549. You should call 1-800-SEC-0330 for more information on the public reference room. Our SEC filings are also available to you on the SEC’s internet site at http://www.sec.gov.

 

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Our internet address is http://www.mksinst.com. We are not including the information contained in our website as part of, or incorporating it by reference into, this annual report on Form 10-K. We make available free of charge through our internet site our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to these reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such materials with, or furnish it to, the SEC.

Markets and Applications

We are focused on improving process performance and productivity by measuring, controlling, powering, monitoring and analyzing advanced manufacturing processes in semiconductor, thin film and certain other advanced market sectors. Approximately 61%, 64% and 52% of our net sales for the years 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively, were to semiconductor capital equipment manufacturers and semiconductor device manufacturers. Approximately 39%, 36% and 48% of our net sales in the years 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively, were for other advanced manufacturing applications. These include, but are not limited to, thin film processing equipment applications such as flat panel displays, LEDs, solar cells, data storage media and other thin film coatings as well as medical equipment; pharmaceutical manufacturing, energy generation and environmental monitoring processes; other industrial manufacturing; and university, government and industrial research laboratories.

During the years 2011, 2010 and 2009, international net sales accounted for approximately 52%, 43% and 46% of our net sales, respectively. Net sales by our Japanese subsidiary were 13%, 14% and 12% for the years 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively. Long-lived assets located in the U.S. were $56.8 million, $54.8 million and $52.1 million as of December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively. Long-lived assets located outside the U.S. were $17.7 million, $17.8 million and $17.4 million as of December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively.

Semiconductor Manufacturing Applications

The majority of our sales are derived from products sold to semiconductor capital equipment manufacturers and semiconductor device manufacturers. Our products are used in the major semiconductor processing steps such as depositing thin films of material onto silicon wafer substrates and etching and cleaning circuit patterns. In addition, we provide specialized instruments and software to monitor and analyze process performance.

We anticipate that the semiconductor manufacturing market will continue to account for a substantial portion of our sales. While the semiconductor device manufacturing market is global, major semiconductor capital equipment manufacturers are concentrated in Japan and the United States.

Other Advanced Manufacturing Applications

Our products are used in the manufacture of flat panel displays, LEDs, data storage media, solar cells and other coatings including architectural glass that require the same or similar thin film deposition processes as semiconductor manufacturing.

Flat Panel Display Manufacturing

Flat panel displays are used in electronic hand-held devices, laptop computers, desktop computer monitors and television sets. We sell products to flat panel display equipment manufacturers and to end-users in the flat panel display market. Major manufacturers of flat panel displays are concentrated in Japan, Korea and Taiwan, and major manufacturers of flat panel display equipment are concentrated in Japan and the United States. The transition to larger panel sizes and higher display resolution is driving the need for improved process control to reduce defects.

 

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Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)

LEDs are made using vacuum processes similar to semiconductor chip manufacturing. Because of their high brightness and long life, as well as environmentally friendly benefits such as lower power consumption, LEDs are expected to experience rapid acceptance in back side lighting of flat screen television displays and are emerging in general lighting applications.

Solar Cells

Our products are used in crystalline silicon and emerging thin film processes to manufacture photovoltaic cells. Crystalline silicon technology requires wafer based deposition systems and is currently the dominant manufacturing technology. Thin film deposition on a non-silicon substrate, such as glass, is the emerging technology.

Data Storage Media

Our products are used to manufacture storage media that store and read data magnetically; optical storage media that store and read data using laser technology; hard disks; data storage devices; and digital video discs.

The transition to higher density storage capacity requires manufacturing processes incorporating tighter process controls. Major manufacturers of storage media are concentrated in Japan and the Asia Pacific region, and major manufacturers of storage media capital equipment are concentrated in Europe, Japan and the United States.

Other Advanced Coatings

Thin film coatings for diverse applications such as architectural glass and packaging are deposited using processes similar to those used in semiconductor manufacturing. Thin film processing manufacturers are concentrated in Europe, Japan and the United States.

Other Advanced Applications

Our products are used in other energy generation and environmental monitoring processes such as nuclear fuel processing, fuel cell research, greenhouse gas monitoring, and chemical agent detection; medical instrument sterilization; consumable medical supply manufacturing and pharmaceutical applications. Our power delivery products are also incorporated into other end-market products such as medical imaging equipment. In addition, our products are sold to government, university and industrial laboratories for vacuum applications involving research and development in materials science, physical chemistry and electronics materials. Major equipment and process providers and research laboratories are concentrated in Europe, Japan and the United States.

Product Groups

We group our products into three product groups, based upon the similarity of the product function, type of product and manufacturing processes. These three groups of products are: Instruments and Control Systems, Power and Reactive Gas Products and Vacuum Products.

Instruments and Control Systems

This product group includes pressure measurement and control, materials delivery, gas composition analysis and control and information technology products.

Pressure Measurement and Control Products.    Each of our pressure measurement and control product lines consists of products that are designed for a variety of pressure ranges and accuracies.

 

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Baratron® Pressure Measurement Products.    These products are typically used to measure the pressure of the gases being distributed upstream of the process chambers, process chamber pressures and pressures between process chambers, vacuum pumps and exhaust lines. We believe we offer the widest range of gas pressure measurement instruments in the semiconductor and advanced thin film materials processing industries.

Automatic Pressure and Vacuum Control Products.    These products enable precise control of process pressure by electronically actuating valves that control the flow of gases in and out of the process chamber to minimize the difference between desired and actual pressure in the chamber.

In most cases, Baratron pressure measurement instruments provide the pressure input to the automatic pressure control device. Together, these components create an integrated automatic pressure control subsystem. Our pressure control products can also accept inputs from other measurement instruments, enabling the automatic control of gas input or exhaust based on parameters other than pressure.

Materials Delivery Products.    Each of our materials delivery product lines combines MKS flow, pressure measurement and control technologies to provide customers with integrated subsystems and precise control capabilities that are optimized for a given application.

Flow Measurement and Control Products.    Flow measurement products include gas and vapor flow measurement products based upon thermal conductivity, pressure and direct liquid injection technologies. The flow control products combine the flow measurement device with valve control elements based upon solenoid, piezo-electric and piston pump technologies. These products measure and automatically control the mass flow rate of gases and vapors into the process chamber.

Gas Composition Analysis Products.    Gas composition analysis instruments are sold to a variety of industries including the semiconductor industry.

Mass Spectrometry-Based Gas Composition Analysis Instruments.    These products are based on quadrupole mass spectrometer sensors that separate gases based on molecular weight. These sensors include built-in electronics and are provided with software that analyzes the composition of background and process gases in the process chamber. These instruments are provided both as portable laboratory systems and as process gas monitoring systems used in the diagnosis of semiconductor manufacturing process systems.

Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) Based Gas Composition Analysis Products.    FTIR-based products provide information about the composition of gases by measuring the absorption of infra-red light as it passes through the sample being measured. Gas analysis applications include measuring the compositions of mixtures of reactant gases; measuring the purity of individual process gases; measuring the composition of process exhaust gas streams to determine process health; monitoring gases to ensure environmental health and safety and monitoring combustion exhausts. These instruments are provided as portable laboratory systems and as process gas monitoring systems used in the diagnosis of manufacturing processes.

Mass spectrometry-based and FTIR-based gas monitoring systems can indicate out-of-bounds conditions, such as the presence of undesirable contaminant gases and water vapor or out-of-tolerance amounts of specific gases in the process, which alert operators to diagnose and repair faulty equipment.

Control and Information Technology Products.    We design and manufacture a suite of products that allow semiconductor and other manufacturing customers to better control their processes through computer-controlled automation. These products include digital control network products, process chamber and system controllers, connectivity products and data analysis/information products.

Control Products.    Digital control network products are used to connect sensors, actuators and subsystems to the chamber and system control computers. They support a variety of industry-standard connection methods as well as conventional discrete digital and analog signals. Chamber and system control computers process these signals in real time and allow customers to precisely manage the process conditions.

 

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Connecting sensors, chambers and tools to the factory network is essential for improving quality and productivity. Our connectivity products allow information to flow from the process sensors and subsystems and from the process tool control computer to the factory network. By enabling this information flow, we believe that we help customers optimize their processes through Advanced Process Control, and diagnose equipment problems from a remote location, which is referred to as “e-diagnostics.”

Information Technology Products.    We design on-line and off-line software products to analyze data to improve the quality and yield of semiconductor, thin film, pharmaceutical, injection molding and other manufacturing processes.

Power and Reactive Gas Products

This group of products includes power delivery and reactive gas generation products used in semiconductor and other thin film applications, including solar and in medical imaging equipment applications.

Power Delivery Products.    We design and manufacture microwave, direct current and radio frequency power delivery systems as well as radio frequency matching networks and metrology products. In the semiconductor, thin film and other market sectors, our power supplies are used to provide energy to various etching, stripping and deposition processes. Our power amplifiers are also used in medical imaging equipment.

Reactive Gas Generation Products.    We design and manufacture reactive gas generation products, which create reactive species. A reactive species is an atom or molecule in an unstable state, which is used to facilitate various chemical reactions in processing of thin films (deposition of films, etching and cleaning of films and surface modifications). A number of different technologies are used to create reactive gas including different plasma technologies and barrier discharge technologies.

Processing Thin Films.    Our reactive gas products include ozone generators and subsystems used for deposition of insulators onto semiconductor devices, ozonated water delivery systems for advanced semiconductor wafer and flat panel display cleaning, microwave plasma based products for photo resist removal and a line of remote plasma generators which provide reactive gases for a wide range of semiconductor, flat panel and other thin film process applications.

Equipment Cleaning.    As materials are deposited on wafers, films, or solar cells, the deposited material also accumulates on the walls of the vacuum process chamber. Our atomic fluorine generators are used to clean the process chambers between deposition steps to reduce particulates and contamination caused by accumulated build up on the chamber walls.

Vacuum Products

This group of products consists of vacuum technology products, including vacuum containment components, vacuum gauges, vacuum valves, effluent management subsystems and custom stainless steel chambers, vessels, pharmaceutical process equipment (BPE) hardware and housings.

Vacuum Gauging Products.    We offer a wide range of vacuum instruments consisting of vacuum measurement sensors and associated power supply and readout units as well as transducers where the sensor and electronics are integrated within a single package. These gauges complement our Baratron capacitance manometers for medium and high vacuum ranges. Our indirect gauges use thermal conductivity and ionization gauge technologies to measure pressure and vacuum levels, and our direct gauges use the pressure measurement technology of a MEMS-based piezo sensor.

Vacuum Valves, Stainless Steel Components, Process Solutions and Custom Stainless Steel Hardware.    Our vacuum valves are used for vacuum isolation of vacuum lines, load locks, vacuum chambers and pumps for chamber isolation and vacuum containment. Our vacuum process solutions consist of vacuum fittings, traps and heated lines that are used downstream from the semiconductor process chamber to control process effluent gasses by preventing condensable materials from depositing particles near or back into the process chamber.

 

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Custom Manufactured Components.    Our design and manufacturing facilities build high purity chambers for material and thin film coating, atomic layer deposition, lithography and all semiconductor and solar processes. We design and build custom panels, weldments, ASME (American Society of Manufacturing Engineers) vessels and housings, as well as a line of BPE certified components for biopharmaceutical processes.

Customers

Our largest customers include leading semiconductor capital equipment manufacturers such as Applied Materials, Lam Research, Novellus Systems and Tokyo Electron. Sales to our top ten customers accounted for approximately 41%, 45% and 37% of net sales for the years 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively. Applied Materials accounted for approximately 14%, 16% and 13% of our net sales for the years 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively.

Sales, Marketing, Service and Support

Our worldwide sales, marketing, service and support organization is critical to our strategy of maintaining close relationships with semiconductor capital equipment and device manufacturers and manufacturers of other advanced applications. We sell our products primarily through our direct sales force. As of December 31, 2011, we had 152 sales employees worldwide, located in China, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Singapore, Sweden, Taiwan, the United Kingdom and the United States. We also maintain sales representatives and agents in a number of countries, who supplement our direct sales force. We maintain a marketing staff that identifies customer requirements, assists in product planning and specifications, and focuses on future trends in semiconductor and other markets.

As semiconductor device manufacturers have become increasingly sensitive to the significant costs of system downtime, they have required that suppliers offer comprehensive local repair service and close customer support. Manufacturers require close support to enable them to repair, modify, upgrade and retrofit their equipment to improve yields and adapt new materials or processes. To meet these market requirements, we maintain internal worldwide sales and support organizations in nine countries and external third party worldwide sales and support organizations in six countries. Technical support is provided from offices in China, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, the United Kingdom and the United States. Repair and calibration services are provided at twenty internal and four third party service depots located worldwide. We typically provide warranties from one to three years, depending upon the type of product.

Research and Development

Our products incorporate sophisticated technologies to power, measure, control and monitor increasingly complex gas-related semiconductor and other advanced manufacturing processes, thereby enhancing uptime, yield and throughput for our customers. Our products have continuously advanced as we strive to meet our customers’ evolving needs. We have developed, and continue to develop, new products to address industry trends, such as the shrinking of integrated circuit critical dimensions to 22 nanometers and below and, in the flat panel display and solar markets, the transition to larger substrate sizes, which require more advanced process control technology. In addition, we have developed, and continue to develop, products that support the migration to new classes of materials and ultra-thin layers, such as copper for low resistance conductors, high-k dielectric materials for capacitors and gates and low-k dielectric materials for low loss insulators that are used in small geometry manufacturing. We have undertaken an initiative to involve our marketing, engineering, manufacturing and sales personnel in the development of new products in order to reduce the time to market for new products. Our employees also work closely with our customers’ development personnel helping us to identify and define future technical needs on which to focus research and development efforts. We support research at academic institutions targeted at advances in materials science and semiconductor process development.

As of December 31, 2011, we had 339 research and development employees, primarily located in the United States. Our research and development expenses were $61.0 million, $62.7 million and $50.2 million for the years 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively. Our research and development efforts include numerous projects, none of

 

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which are individually material, and generally have a duration of 3 to 30 months depending upon whether the product is an enhancement of existing technology or a new product. Our current initiatives include projects to enhance the performance characteristics of older products, to develop new products and to integrate various technologies into subsystems.

Manufacturing

Our primary manufacturing facilities are located in China, Germany, Israel, Mexico, the United Kingdom and the United States. Manufacturing activities include the assembly and testing of components and subassemblies, which are integrated into our products. We outsource some of our subassembly work. We purchase a wide range of electronic, mechanical and electrical components, some of which are designed to our specifications. We consider our lean manufacturing techniques and responsiveness to customers’ significantly fluctuating product demands to be a competitive advantage. As of December 31, 2011, we had 1,618 manufacturing related employees located mostly in China and the United States.

Competition

The market for our products is highly competitive. Principal competitive factors include:

 

   

historical customer relationships;

 

   

product quality, performance and price;

 

   

breadth of product line;

 

   

manufacturing capabilities; and

 

   

customer service and support.

Although we believe that we compete favorably with respect to these factors, there can be no assurance that we will continue to do so.

We encounter substantial competition in most of our product lines, although no single competitor competes with us across all product lines. Certain of our competitors may have greater financial and other resources than us. In some cases, competitors are smaller than we are, but are well established in specific product niches. Hitachi and Horiba offer materials delivery products that compete with our product line of mass flow controllers. Nor-Cal Products and VAT offer products that compete with our vacuum components. Inficon offers products that compete with our vacuum measurement and gas analysis products. Brooks Automation and Inficon offer products that compete with our vacuum gauging products. Advanced Energy offers products that compete with our power delivery and reactive gas generator products.

Patents and Other Intellectual Property Rights

We rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret laws and license agreements to establish and protect our proprietary rights. As of December 31, 2011, we owned 360 U.S. patents, 382 foreign patents and had 118 pending U.S. patent applications that expire at various dates through 2030. Foreign counterparts of certain of these applications have been filed or may be filed at the appropriate time.

We require each of our employees, including our executive officers, to enter into standard agreements pursuant to which the employee agrees to keep confidential all of our proprietary information and to assign to us all inventions while they are employed by us.

Employees

As of December 31, 2011, we employed 2,429 persons. We believe that our ongoing success depends upon our continued ability to attract and retain highly skilled employees for whom competition is intense. None of our employees are represented by a labor union or are party to a collective bargaining agreement. We believe that our employee relations are good.

 

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Discontinued Operations

During 2010, we executed a plan to divest two product lines, as their growth potential no longer met our long-term strategic objectives. We completed the sale of Ion Systems, Inc. (“Ion”) during the second quarter of 2010 and the sale of the assets of the Yield Dynamics, LLC (“YDI”) business during the third quarter of 2010. The results of operations of the two product lines have been classified as discontinued operations in the consolidated statements of operations for all periods presented. The assets and liabilities of these discontinued product lines have not been reclassified and segregated in the consolidated balance sheets or consolidated statements of cash flows due to their immaterial amounts.

 

Item 1A. Risk Factors

The following factors could materially affect MKS’ business, financial condition or results of operations and should be carefully considered in evaluating the Company and its business, in addition to other information presented elsewhere in this report.

Our business depends substantially on capital spending in the semiconductor industry which is characterized by periodic fluctuations that may cause a reduction in demand for our products.

Approximately 61%, 64% and 52% of our net sales for the years 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively, were to semiconductor capital equipment manufacturers and semiconductor device manufacturers, and we expect that sales to such customers will continue to account for a substantial portion of our sales. Our business depends upon the capital expenditures of semiconductor device manufacturers, which in turn depend upon the demand for semiconductors.

Historically, the semiconductor market has been highly cyclical and has experienced periods of overcapacity, resulting in significantly reduced demand for capital equipment which may result in lower gross margins due to reduced absorption of manufacturing overhead. In addition, many semiconductor manufacturers have operations and customers in Asia, a region that in past years has experienced serious economic problems including currency devaluations, debt defaults, lack of liquidity and recessions. For example, reductions in demand for the products manufactured by semiconductor capital equipment manufacturers and semiconductor device manufacturers in 2008 and early 2009 adversely affected our business. The global economic uncertainty prolonged a steep downturn in semiconductor capital equipment spending and adversely affected our business, financial condition and results of operations. Our net revenues during 2009 for our semiconductor and capital equipment manufacturers and semiconductor device manufacturers decreased by 43%. However, in 2010, sales to semiconductor capital equipment manufacturers and semiconductor device manufacturers increased by 167%. In 2011, our sales to semiconductor capital equipment manufacturers and semiconductor device manufacturers decreased by 8%. We cannot be certain of the timing or magnitude of future semiconductor industry downturns or recoveries. A decline in the level of orders as a result of any downturn or slowdown in the semiconductor capital equipment industry could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are exposed to risks associated with instability in the financial markets and any weakness in the global economy.

The markets for semiconductors and flat panel displays in particular depend largely on consumer spending. Economic uncertainty exacerbates negative trends in consumer spending and may cause certain of our customers to push out, cancel, or refrain from placing equipment or service orders, which may affect our ability to convert backlog to sales and may reduce our net sales. Difficulties in obtaining capital and deteriorating market conditions may also lead to the inability of some customers to obtain affordable financing, resulting in lower sales for us. Customers with liquidity issues may lead to additional bad debt expense for us. These conditions may also similarly affect key suppliers, which could affect their ability to deliver parts and result in delays for our products. Further, these conditions and uncertainty about future economic conditions make it challenging for

 

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us to forecast our operating results, make business decisions, and identify the risks that may affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. If we are not able to timely and appropriately adapt to changes resulting from a difficult macroeconomic environment, our business, financial condition or results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

International sales accounted for approximately 52%, 43% and 46%, of net sales for the years 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively, a substantial portion of which were sales to China, Japan and other Asian countries and we anticipate that international sales will continue to account for a significant portion of our net sales. In addition, certain of our key domestic customers derive a significant portion of their revenues from sales in international markets. Therefore, our sales and results of operations could be adversely affected by economic slowdowns affecting the global economy generally, as well as economic slow downs in particular regions, such as Asia or Europe, or specific countries such as Japan.

Our quarterly operating results have fluctuated, and are likely to continue to vary significantly, which may result in volatility in the market price of our common stock.

A substantial portion of our shipments occurs shortly after an order is received and therefore we operate with a low level of backlog. As a result, a decrease in demand for our products from one or more customers could occur with limited advance notice and could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations in any particular period. A significant percentage of our expenses is relatively fixed and based in part on expectations of future net sales. The inability to adjust spending quickly enough to compensate for any shortfall would magnify the adverse impact of a shortfall in net sales on our results of operations. Factors that could cause fluctuations in our net sales include:

 

   

the timing of the receipt of orders from major customers;

 

   

shipment delays;

 

   

disruption in sources of supply;

 

   

seasonal variations in capital spending by customers;

 

   

production capacity constraints; and

 

   

specific features requested by customers.

In addition, our quarterly operating results may be adversely affected due to charges incurred in a particular quarter, for example, relating to inventory obsolescence, warranty or asset impairments.

As a result of the factors discussed above, it is likely that we may in the future experience quarterly or annual fluctuations and that, in one or more future quarters, our operating results may fall below the expectations of public market analysts or investors. In any such event, the price of our common stock could fluctuate or decline significantly.

The loss of net sales to any one of our major customers would likely have a material adverse effect on us.

Our top ten customers accounted for approximately 41%, 45% and 37% of our net sales for the years 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively. During the years 2011, 2010 and 2009, one customer, Applied Materials, accounted for approximately 14%, 16% and 13%, respectively, of our net sales. The loss of a major customer or any reduction in orders by these customers, including reductions due to market or competitive conditions, would likely have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. None of our significant customers, including Applied Materials, has entered into an agreement requiring it to purchase any minimum quantity of our products. The demand for our products from our semiconductor capital equipment customers depends in part on orders received by them from their semiconductor device manufacturer customers.

 

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Attempts to lessen the adverse effect of any loss or reduction of net sales through the rapid addition of new customers could be difficult because prospective customers typically require lengthy qualification periods prior to placing volume orders with a new supplier. Our future success will continue to depend upon:

 

   

our ability to maintain relationships with existing key customers;

 

   

our ability to attract new customers and satisfy any required qualification periods;

 

   

our ability to introduce new products in a timely manner for existing and new customers; and

 

   

the successes of our customers in creating demand for their capital equipment products that incorporate our products.

As part of our business strategy, we have entered into and may enter into or seek to enter into business combinations and acquisitions that may be difficult and costly to integrate, may be disruptive to our business, may dilute stockholder value or may divert management attention.

In past years, we made numerous acquisitions and, as a part of our business strategy, we may enter into additional business combinations and acquisitions. Acquisitions are typically accompanied by a number of risks, including the difficulty of integrating the operations, technology and personnel of the acquired companies, the potential disruption of our ongoing business and distraction of management, possible internal control weaknesses of the acquired companies, expenses related to the acquisition and potential unknown liabilities associated with acquired businesses. If we are not successful in completing acquisitions that we may pursue in the future, we may be required to reevaluate our growth strategy, and we may incur substantial expenses and devote significant management time and resources in seeking to complete proposed acquisitions that may not generate benefits for us.

In addition, with future acquisitions, we could use substantial portions of our available cash as all or a portion of the purchase price. We could also issue additional securities as consideration for these acquisitions, which could cause significant stockholder dilution without achieving the desired accretion to our business. Further, our prior acquisitions and any future acquisitions may not ultimately help us achieve our strategic goals and may pose other risks to us.

As a result of our previous acquisitions, we now have several different decentralized operating and accounting systems, resulting in a complex reporting environment. We will need to continue to modify our accounting policies, internal controls, procedures and compliance programs to provide consistency across all of our operations. In order to increase efficiency and operating effectiveness and improve corporate visibility into our decentralized operations, we are currently implementing a worldwide Enterprise Resource Planning (“ERP”) system. We expect to continue to implement the ERP system in phases over the next few years. Any future implementations may risk potential disruption of our operations during the conversion periods and the implementations could require significantly more management time and higher implementation costs than currently estimated.

An inability to convince semiconductor device manufacturers to specify the use of our products to our customers that are semiconductor capital equipment manufacturers would weaken our competitive position.

The markets for our products are highly competitive. Our competitive success often depends upon factors outside of our control. For example, in some cases, particularly with respect to mass flow controllers, semiconductor device manufacturers may direct semiconductor capital equipment manufacturers to use a specified supplier’s product in their equipment. Accordingly, for such products, our success will depend in part on our ability to have semiconductor device manufacturers specify that our products be used at their semiconductor fabrication facilities. In addition, we may encounter difficulties in changing established relationships of competitors that already have a large installed base of products within such semiconductor fabrication facilities.

 

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If our products are not designed into successive generations of our customers’ products, we will lose significant net sales during the lifespan of those products.

New products designed by capital equipment manufacturers typically have a lifespan of five to ten years. Our success depends on our products being designed into new generations of equipment. We must develop products that are technologically advanced so that they are positioned to be chosen for use in each successive generation of capital equipment. If customers do not choose our products, our net sales may be reduced during the lifespan of our customers’ products. In addition, we must make a significant capital investment to develop products for our customers well before our products are introduced and before we can be sure that we will recover our capital investment through sales to the customers in significant volume. We are thus also at risk during the development phase that our products may fail to meet our customers’ technical or cost requirements and may be replaced by a competitive product or alternative technology solution. If that happens, we may be unable to recover our development costs.

The semiconductor industry is subject to rapid demand shifts which are difficult to predict. As a result, our inability to expand our manufacturing capacity in response to these rapid shifts may cause a reduction in our market share.

Our ability to increase sales of certain products depends in part upon our ability to expand our manufacturing capacity for such products in a timely manner. If we are unable to expand our manufacturing capacity on a timely basis or to manage such expansion effectively, our customers could implement our competitors’ products and, as a result, our market share could be reduced. Because the semiconductor industry is subject to rapid demand shifts which are difficult to foresee, we may not be able to increase capacity quickly enough to respond to a rapid increase in demand. Additionally, capacity expansion could increase our fixed operating expenses and if sales levels do not increase to offset the additional expense levels associated with any such expansion, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

A material amount of our assets represents goodwill and intangible assets, and our net income will be reduced if our goodwill or intangible assets become impaired.

As of December 31, 2011, our goodwill and intangible assets, net, represented approximately $141.1 million, or 13% of our total assets. Goodwill is generated in our acquisitions when the cost of an acquisition exceeds the fair value of the net tangible and identifiable intangible assets we acquire. Goodwill is subject to an impairment analysis at least annually based on the fair value of the reporting unit. Intangible assets, which relate primarily to the customer technologies, relationships, patents and trademarks and in-process research and development acquired by us as part of our acquisitions of other companies, are subject to an impairment analysis whenever events or changes in circumstances exist that indicate that the carrying value of the intangible asset might not be recoverable. During 2009, we recorded non-cash impairment charges of $205.0 million related to goodwill and intangible assets. We will continue to monitor and evaluate the carrying value of goodwill and intangible assets. If market and economic conditions or business performance deteriorate, the likelihood of the Company recording an impairment charge would increase, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.

We operate in a highly competitive industry.

The market for our products is highly competitive. Principal competitive factors include:

 

   

historical customer relationships;

 

   

product quality, performance and price;

 

   

breadth of product line;

 

   

manufacturing capabilities; and

 

   

customer service and support.

 

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Although we believe that we compete favorably with respect to these factors, we may not be able to continue to do so. We encounter substantial competition in most of our product lines. Certain of our competitors may have greater financial and other resources than we have. In some cases, competitors are smaller than we are, but well established in specific product niches. We may encounter difficulties in changing established relationships of competitors with a large installed base of products at such customers’ fabrication facilities. In addition, our competitors can be expected to continue to improve the design and performance of their products. Competitors may develop products that offer price or performance features superior to those of our products. If our competitors develop superior products, we may lose existing customers and market share.

We have significant foreign operations, and outsource certain operations offshore, which pose significant risks.

We have significant international sales, service, engineering and manufacturing operations in Europe, Israel and Asia, and have outsourced a portion of our manufacturing to Mexico. In the future, we may expand the level of manufacturing and certain other operations that we perform offshore in order to take advantage of cost efficiencies available to us in those countries. However, we may not achieve the significant cost savings or other benefits that we would anticipate from moving manufacturing and other operations to a lower cost region. These foreign operations expose us to operational and political risks that may harm our business, including:

 

   

political and economic instability;

 

   

fluctuations in the value of currencies and high levels of inflation, particularly in Asia and Europe;

 

   

changes in labor conditions and difficulties in staffing and managing foreign operations, including, but not limited to, the formation of labor unions;

 

   

reduced or less certain protection for intellectual property rights;

 

   

greater difficulty in collecting accounts receivable and longer payment cycles;

 

   

burdens and costs of compliance with a variety of foreign laws;

 

   

increases in duties and taxation;

 

   

costs associated with compliance programs for import and export regulations;

 

   

imposition of restrictions on currency conversion or the transfer of funds;

 

   

changes in export duties and limitations on imports or exports;

 

   

expropriation of private enterprises; and

 

   

unexpected changes in foreign regulations.

If any of these risks materialize, our operating results may be adversely affected.

Unfavorable currency exchange rate fluctuations may lead to lower operating margins or may cause us to raise prices, which could result in reduced sales.

Currency exchange rate fluctuations could have an adverse effect on our net sales and results of operations and we could experience losses with respect to our hedging activities. Unfavorable currency fluctuations could require us to increase prices to foreign customers, which could result in lower net sales by us to such customers. Alternatively, if we do not adjust the prices for our products in response to unfavorable currency fluctuations, our results of operations could be adversely affected. In addition, most sales made by our foreign subsidiaries are denominated in the currency of the country in which these products are sold and the currency they receive in payment for such sales could be less valuable at the time of receipt as a result of exchange rate fluctuations. We enter into forward foreign exchange contracts and may enter into local currency purchased options to reduce currency exposure arising from intercompany sales of inventory. However, we cannot be certain that our efforts will be adequate to protect us against significant currency fluctuations or that such efforts will not expose us to additional exchange rate risks.

 

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Changes in tax rates or tax regulation could affect results of operations.

As a global company, we are subject to taxation in the United States and various other countries. Significant judgment is required to determine and estimate worldwide tax liabilities. Our future annual and quarterly effective tax rates could be affected by numerous factors, including changes in the: applicable tax laws; composition of pre-tax income in countries with differing tax rates; and/or valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities. In addition, we are subject to regular examination by the Internal Revenue Service and foreign tax authorities. We regularly assess the likelihood of favorable or unfavorable outcomes resulting from these examinations to determine the adequacy of our provision for income taxes. Although we believe our tax estimates are reasonable, there can be no assurance that any final determination will not be materially different from the treatment reflected in our historical income tax provisions and accruals, which could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Key personnel may be difficult to attract and retain.

Our success depends to a large extent upon the efforts and abilities of a number of key employees and officers, particularly those with expertise in the semiconductor manufacturing and similar industrial manufacturing industries. The loss of key employees or officers could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. We believe that our future success will depend in part on our ability to attract and retain highly skilled technical, financial, managerial and sales and marketing personnel. We cannot be certain that we will be successful in attracting and retaining such personnel.

Our proprietary technology is important to the continued success of our business. Our failure to protect this proprietary technology may significantly impair our competitive position.

As of December 31, 2011, we owned 360 U.S. patents, 382 foreign patents and had 118 pending U.S. patent applications that expire at various dates through 2030. Although we seek to protect our intellectual property rights through patents, copyrights, trade secrets and other measures, we cannot be certain that:

 

   

we will be able to protect our technology adequately;

 

   

competitors will not be able to develop similar technology independently;

 

   

any of our pending patent applications will be issued;

 

   

domestic and international intellectual property laws will protect our intellectual property rights; or

 

   

third parties will not assert that our products infringe patent, copyright or trade secrets of such parties.

Protection of our intellectual property rights may result in costly litigation.

Litigation may be necessary in order to enforce our patents, copyrights or other intellectual property rights, to protect our trade secrets, to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others or to defend against claims of infringement. We are, from time to time, involved in lawsuits enforcing or defending our intellectual property rights. Such litigation could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.

We may need to expend significant time and expense to protect our intellectual property regardless of the validity or successful outcome of such intellectual property claims. If we lose any litigation, we may be required to seek licenses from others, pay royalties, change, stop manufacturing or stop selling some of our products.

The market price of our common stock has fluctuated and may continue to fluctuate for reasons over which we have no control.

The stock market has from time to time experienced, and is likely to continue to experience, extreme price and volume fluctuations. Prices of securities of technology companies have been especially volatile and have often fluctuated for reasons that are unrelated to the operating performance of the companies. Historically, the

 

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market price of shares of our common stock has fluctuated greatly and could continue to fluctuate due to a variety of factors. In the past, companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their stock have been the objects of securities class action litigation. If we were the object of securities class action litigation, it could result in substantial costs and a diversion of our management’s attention and resources.

We may not pay dividends on our common stock.

Holders of our common stock are only entitled to receive such dividends when and if they are declared by our Board of Directors. Although we have declared cash dividends on our common stock for the last year, we are not required to do so and may reduce or eliminate our cash dividend in the future. This could adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

Our dependence on sole, limited source suppliers, and international suppliers, could affect our ability to manufacture products and systems.

We rely on sole, limited source suppliers and international suppliers for a few of our components and subassemblies that are critical to the manufacturing of our products. This reliance involves several risks, including the following:

 

   

the potential inability to obtain an adequate supply of required components;

 

   

reduced control over pricing and timing of delivery of components; and

 

   

the potential inability of our suppliers to develop technologically advanced products to support our growth and development of new systems.

We believe we could obtain and qualify alternative sources for most sole, limited source and international supplier parts however, the transition time may be long. Seeking alternative sources for these parts could require us to redesign our systems, resulting in increased costs and likely shipping delays. We may be unable to redesign our systems, which could result in further costs and shipping delays. These increased costs would decrease our profit margins if we could not pass the costs to our customers. Further, shipping delays could damage our relationships with current and potential customers and have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

We are subject to governmental regulations. If we fail to comply with these regulations, our business could be harmed.

We are subject to federal, state, local and foreign regulations, including environmental regulations and regulations relating to the design and operation of our products. We must ensure that the affected products meet a variety of standards, many of which vary across the countries in which our systems are used. For example, the European Union has published directives specifically relating to power supplies. In addition, the European Union has issued directives relating to regulation of recycling and hazardous substances, which may be applicable to our products, or to which some customers may voluntarily elect to adhere to. China has adopted, and certain other Asian countries have indicated, an intention to adopt similar regulations. We must comply with any applicable regulation adopted in connection with these types of directives in order to ship affected products into countries that adopt these types of regulations. We believe we are in compliance with current applicable regulations, directives and standards and have obtained all necessary permits, approvals and authorizations to conduct our business. However, compliance with future regulations, directives and standards, or customer demands beyond such requirements, could require us to modify or redesign certain systems, make capital expenditures or incur substantial costs. If we do not comply with current or future regulations, directives and standards:

 

   

we could be subject to fines;

 

   

our production could be suspended; or

 

   

we could be prohibited from offering particular systems in specified markets.

 

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Some provisions of our restated articles of organization, as amended, our amended and restated by-laws and Massachusetts law could discourage potential acquisition proposals and could delay or prevent a change in control.

Anti-takeover provisions could diminish the opportunities for stockholders to participate in tender offers, including tender offers at a price above the then current market price of the common stock. Such provisions may also inhibit increases in the market price of the common stock that could result from takeover attempts. For example, while we have no present plans to issue any preferred stock, our board of directors, without further stockholder approval, may issue preferred stock that could have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change in control of us. The issuance of preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power of the holders of our common stock, including the loss of voting control to others. In addition, our amended and restated by-laws provide for a classified board of directors consisting of three classes. The classified board could also have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change in control of the Company.

Changes in financial accounting standards may adversely affect our reported results of operations.

A change in accounting standards or practices could have a significant effect on our reported results and may even affect our reporting of transactions completed before the change was effective. New accounting pronouncements and varying interpretations of existing accounting pronouncements have occurred and may occur in the future. Such changes may adversely affect our reported financial results or may impact our related business practice.

 

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

 

Item 2. Properties

The following table provides information concerning MKS’ principal and certain other owned and leased facilities as of December 31, 2011:

 

Location

   Sq. Ft.     

Activity

  

Products
Manufactured

   Lease
Expires
 

Akishima, Japan

     26,300       Manufacturing, Customer Support and Service    Materials and Power Delivery Products      September 11, 2018   

Andover, Massachusetts

     118,000       Manufacturing, Research & Development and Corporate Headquarters    Pressure Measurement and Control Products      (1

Austin, Texas

     20,880       Manufacturing, Sales, Customer Support, Service and Research & Development    Control & Information Management Products      June 30, 2015   

Berlin, Germany

     20,750       Manufacturing, Customer Support, Service and Research & Development    Reactive Gas Generation Products      December 13, 2013   

Boulder, Colorado

     124,000       Manufacturing, Customer Support, Service and Research & Development    Vacuum Products      (2

Carmiel, Israel

     11,800       Manufacturing and Research & Development    Control & Information Management Products      December 31, 2012   

Cheshire, United
Kingdom

  

 

16,000

  

  

Manufacturing, Sales, Customer Support and Service

  

Materials Delivery Products

  

 

November 6, 2018

  

Colorado Springs, Colorado

     24,000       Research & Development    Not applicable      (3

Filderstadt, Germany

     9,300       Sales and Service    Not applicable      July 31, 2014   

Fukuoka, Japan

     9,300       Customer Support and Service    Not applicable      October 19, 2012   

Hellebaek, Denmark

     6,400       Manufacturing and Research & Development    Vacuum Products      December 31, 2012   

 

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Location

   Sq. Ft.     

Activity

  

Products Manufactured

   Lease
Expires
 

Kyunggi, Korea

     45,600       Sales, Customer Support and Service    Not applicable      (4

Lawrence, Massachusetts

     40,000       Manufacturing    Pressure Measurement and Control Products      (3

Lod, Israel

     7,600       Customer Support and Research & Development    Not applicable      December 31, 2012   

Methuen, Massachusetts

     85,000       Manufacturing, Customer Support, Service and Research & Development    Pressure Measurement and Control Products and Materials Delivery Products      (3

Munich, Germany

     20,100       Manufacturing, Sales, Customer Support, Service and Research & Development    Pressure Measurement and Control Products and Materials Delivery Products      (5

Nogales, Mexico

     67,700       Manufacturing    Pressure Measurement and Control Products and Reactive Gas Generation Products      March 31, 2014   

Richardson, Texas

     8,800       Sales, Customer Support and Service    Not applicable      November 30, 2012   

Rochester, New York

     156,000       Manufacturing, Sales, Customer Support, Service and Research & Development    Power Delivery Products      (3

San Jose, California

     20,400       Sales, Customer Support and Service    Not applicable      January 31, 2018   

Shanghai, China

     18,700       Sales, Customer Support and Service    Not applicable      February 28, 2014   

Shenzhen, China

     242,000       Manufacturing    Power Delivery Products      May 31, 2017   

Shropshire, United Kingdom

     25,000       Manufacturing    Control & Information Management Products      June 23, 2022   

Singapore

     12,000       Sales, Customer Support and Service    Not applicable      July 31, 2012   

Taiwan

     21,400       Sales, Customer Support and Service    Not applicable      August 31, 2012   

Tokyo, Japan

     6,000       Sales and Customer Support    Not applicable      December 31, 2012   

Umea, Sweden

     7,000       Sales, Customer Support and Research & Development    Not applicable      August 31, 2013   

Wilmington, Massachusetts

     118,000       Manufacturing, Sales, Customer Support, Service and Research & Development    Reactive Gas Generation Products and Power Delivery Products      (3

 

(1)

MKS owns one facility with 82,000 square feet of space used for manufacturing and research and development and leases 36,000 square feet of space used for its corporate headquarters with a lease term that expires on January 1, 2018.

 

(2)

MKS leases two facilities, of which one has 39,000 square feet of space and the other has 38,000 square feet of space. Both leases expire on May 31, 2015. MKS also owns a third and fourth facility with 27,000 and 20,000 square feet of space, respectively.

 

(3)

This facility is owned by MKS.

 

(4)

MKS leases floors 4 and 6 totaling 36,500 square feet with a lease expiration date of May 2, 2020. MKS leases floor 5 totaling 9,100 square feet with a lease expiration date of January 31, 2013.

 

(5)

MKS owns 14,800 square feet and leases 1,600 square feet with an expiration date of August 31, 2012 and 3,700 square feet with an expiration date of December 31, 2012.

 

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In addition to manufacturing and other operations conducted at the foregoing leased or owned facilities, MKS provides worldwide sales, customer support and services from various other leased facilities throughout the world not listed in the table above. See “Business—Sales, Marketing, Service and Support.”

 

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

We are subject to various legal proceedings and claims, which have arisen in the ordinary course of business. In the opinion of management, the ultimate disposition of these matters will not have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition or cash flows.

 

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

 

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PART II

 

Item 5. Market for the Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Price Range of Common Stock

Our common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol MKSI. On February 17, 2012, the closing price of our common stock, as reported on the NASDAQ Global Select Market, was $31.68 per share. The following table sets forth for the periods indicated the high and low sales prices per share of our common stock as reported by the NASDAQ Global Select Market.

 

     2011      2010  
     High      Low      High      Low  

First Quarter

   $ 33.68       $ 23.09       $ 20.00       $ 15.94   

Second Quarter

     33.85         23.37         24.88         17.45   

Third Quarter

     27.75         20.96         22.26         16.50   

Fourth Quarter

     28.89         20.01         24.87         17.31   

On February 17, 2012, we had approximately 147 stockholders of record.

Dividend Policy and Cash Dividends

Holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends when and if they are declared by our Board of Directors. During 2011, our Board of Directors declared four quarterly dividends of $0.15 per share, which totaled $31.4 million or $0.60 per share. Future dividend declarations, if any, as well as the record and payment dates for such dividends, are subject to the final determination of our Board of Directors. No dividends were declared or paid in 2010. The Board of Directors intends to declare and pay cash dividends on our common stock based on the financial conditions and results of operations of the Company, although it has no obligation to do so.

On February 13, 2012, our Board of Directors declared a quarterly cash dividend of $0.15 per share to be paid on March 16, 2012 to shareholders of record as of March 1, 2012.

Purchase of Equity Shares

On July 25, 2011, our Board of Directors approved and on July 27, 2011, we publicly announced, a share repurchase program for the repurchase of up to an aggregate of $200 million of our outstanding common stock from time to time in open market purchases, privately negotiated transactions or through other appropriate means (the “Program”). The timing and quantity of any shares repurchased will depend upon a variety of factors, including business conditions, stock market conditions and business development activities, including but not limited to merger and acquisition opportunities. These repurchases may be commenced, suspended or discontinued at any time without prior notice.

 

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The following table sets forth certain information with respect to repurchases of our common stock during the three months ended December 31, 2011.

ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

 

Period

  (a)
Total Number of  Shares
Purchased
    (b)
Average Price Paid
per Share
    (c)
Total Number  of
Shares
Purchased as
Part of Publicly
Announced Plans
or Programs(1)
    (d)
Approximate  Dollar
Value of Shares that
May Yet Be
Purchased Under
the Plans or
Programs(1)
 

October 1 – October 31, 2011

    20,000      $  21.48        20,000      $ 199,096,000   

November 1 – November 30, 2011

    20,000      $ 23.71        20,000      $ 198,622,000   

December 1 –December 31, 2011

    24,000      $ 26.20        24,000      $ 197,993,000   
     

 

 

   

Total

        64,000     

 

(1)

We have repurchased approximately 86,000 shares of our common stock pursuant to the Program since its adoption. During the three months ended December 31, 2011, we repurchased a total of 64,000 shares of our common stock pursuant to the Program.

 

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Comparative Stock Performance

The following graph compares the cumulative total shareholder return (assuming reinvestment of dividends) from investing $100 on December 31, 2006, and plotted at the last trading day of each of the fiscal years ended December 31, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011, in each of MKS’ common stock; an industry group index of semiconductor equipment/material manufacturers (the “Morningstar Semiconductor Equipment & Materials Industry Group”), compiled by Morningstar, Inc.; and the NASDAQ Market Index of companies. The stock price performance on the graph below is not necessarily indicative of future price performance. The Company’s common stock is listed on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the ticker symbol “MKSI.”

Performance Graph

 

LOGO

 

      2006      2007      2008      2009      2010      2011  

MKS Instruments, Inc.

   $ 100.00       $ 84.76       $ 65.49       $ 77.06       $ 108.48       $ 126.04   

NASDAQ Market Index

   $ 100.00       $ 110.65       $ 66.42       $ 96.54       $ 114.06       $ 113.16   
Morningstar Semiconductor Equipment & Materials Industry Group    $ 100.00       $ 107.28       $ 46.89       $ 78.72       $ 88.43       $ 79.02   

The information included under the heading “Comparative Stock Performance” in Item 5 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K is “furnished” and not “filed” and shall not be deemed to be “soliciting material” or subject to Regulation 14A, shall not be deemed “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, or otherwise subject to the liabilities of that section, nor shall it be deemed incorporated by reference in any filing under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Exchange Act.

 

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Item 6. Selected Financial Data

Selected Consolidated Financial Data

 

     Years Ended December 31,  
     2011      2010      2009     2008     2007  
     (in thousands, except per share data)  

Statement of Operations Data

  

Net sales (1)

   $ 822,517       $ 853,114       $ 392,693      $ 621,380      $ 751,445   

Gross profit (1)

     374,988         378,638         130,216        248,238        316,194   

Income (loss) from operations (1)

     184,925         195,507         (171,661     50,874        109,946   

Income (loss) from continuing operations

     129,731         132,919         (149,361     40,010        88,569   

Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of taxes (2)

             9,668         (63,298     (9,893     (2,209

Net income (loss) (3)

   $ 129,731       $ 142,587       $ (212,659   $ 30,117      $ 86,360   

Basic income (loss) per share:

            

Continuing operations

   $ 2.49       $ 2.66       $ (3.03   $ 0.81      $ 1.57   

Net income (loss)

   $ 2.49       $ 2.85       $ (4.31   $ 0.61      $ 1.53   

Diluted income (loss) per share:

            

Continuing operations

   $ 2.45       $ 2.61       $ (3.03   $ 0.79      $ 1.55   

Net income (loss)

   $ 2.45       $ 2.80       $ (4.31   $ 0.59      $ 1.51   

Cash dividends paid per common share

   $ 0.60       $       $      $      $   

Balance Sheet Data

            

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 312,916       $ 162,476       $ 111,009      $ 119,261      $ 223,968   

Short-term investments

     252,603         269,457         160,786        159,608        99,797   

Working capital

     788,470         643,209         461,581        452,793        514,235   

Long-term investments

     7,873                 4,853                 

Total assets

     1,118,654         982,413         774,069        984,939        1,076,260   

Short-term obligations

     1,932                 12,885        18,678        20,203   

Long-term obligations, less current portion

                            396        5,871   

Stockholders’ equity

   $ 990,012       $ 847,039       $ 684,933      $ 886,698      $ 954,009   

 

(1)

For the years 2007 through 2009, shown in the table above, the amounts have been revised to exclude the results of two product lines that have been classified as discontinued operations. Loss from operations for 2009 includes an impairment charge of $143.0 million related to the write-down of goodwill, intangible and long-lived assets and $5.5 million of restructuring charges.

 

(2)

Income from discontinued operations, net of taxes for 2010 includes a $4.4 million gain on the sale of the two discontinued product lines. Loss from discontinued operations, net of taxes for 2009 includes charges related to the discontinued product lines of $53.8 million for the goodwill impairment and $7.3 million for the intangible assets impairment.

 

(3)

Net loss for 2009 includes charges, net of tax, of $202.7 million related to the write-down of goodwill, intangible and long-lived assets and $3.6 million of restructuring charges. Net income for 2008 includes an impairment charge of $3.8 million, net of tax, related to the write-down of intangible assets.

 

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Overview

We are a global provider of instruments, subsystems and process control solutions that measure, control, power, monitor and analyze critical parameters of advanced manufacturing processes to improve process performance and productivity.

We are managed as one operating segment. We report revenues and group our products into three product groups, based upon the similarity of the product function, type of product and manufacturing processes. These three groups of products are: Instruments and Control Systems, Power and Reactive Gas Products and Vacuum Products. Our products are derived from our core competencies in pressure measurement and control, materials delivery, gas composition analysis, control and information technology, power and reactive gas generation and vacuum technology. Our products are used in diverse markets, applications and processes. Our primary served markets are manufacturers of capital equipment for semiconductor devices, and for other thin film applications including flat panel displays, solar cells, light emitting diodes (“LEDs”), data storage media and other advanced manufactured products. We also leverage our technology in other markets with advanced manufacturing applications including medical equipment, pharmaceutical manufacturing, energy generation and environmental monitoring.

We have a diverse base of customers that includes manufacturers of semiconductor capital equipment and semiconductor devices, thin film capital equipment used in the manufacture of flat panel displays, LEDs, solar cells, data storage media and other coating applications; and other industrial, medical, energy generation, environmental monitoring and manufacturing companies, and university, government and industrial research laboratories. During the years 2011, 2010 and 2009, approximately 61%, 64% and 52% of our net sales, respectively, were to semiconductor capital equipment manufacturers and semiconductor device manufacturers. We expect that sales to semiconductor capital equipment manufacturers and semiconductor device manufacturers will continue to account for a substantial portion of our sales.

In the first half of 2011, we delivered our two strongest revenue quarters on record, with net sales of $456.3 million for the six months ended June 30, 2011. However, late in the second quarter of 2011, we started to see a weakening in our orders and sales, mainly in the semiconductor markets. Worldwide economic uncertainty and slowing consumer spending have resulted in lower electronics demand, rising chip inventories and a slowing of investments in semiconductor production capacity for the second half of 2011. Our capital equipment customers have seen their order rates decline significantly, and they have therefore slowed the rate at which they are ordering from us. As a result, sales to our semiconductor customers decreased by 8% in 2011 compared to 2010, after growing by 167% in 2010 compared to 2009. The semiconductor capital equipment industry is subject to rapid demand shifts, which are difficult to predict, and we are uncertain as to the timing or extent of future demand or any future weakness in the semiconductor capital equipment industry.

Our net revenues sold to other advanced markets, which exclude semiconductor capital equipment and semiconductor device product applications, increased 4% in 2011 compared to the prior year. These advanced and growing markets include LED, medical, pharmaceutical, environmental, thin films, solar and other markets. Approximately 39% of our net sales for 2011 were to other advanced markets and we anticipate that these markets will continue to grow and will represent a larger portion of our revenue.

A significant portion of our net sales is to operations in international markets. During the years 2011, 2010 and 2009, international net sales accounted for approximately 52%, 43% and 46% of our net sales, respectively. A significant portion of our international net sales were sales in Japan. We expect that international net sales will continue to represent a significant percentage of our total net sales.

During 2010, we executed a plan to divest two product lines, as their growth potential no longer met our long-term strategic objectives. We completed the sale of Ion Systems, Inc. (“Ion”) during the second quarter of

 

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2010 and the sale of the assets of the Yield Dynamics, LLC (“YDI”) business during the third quarter of 2010 and received total net proceeds of $15.6 million. The results of operations of the two product lines have been classified as discontinued operations in the consolidated statements of operations for all periods presented. The assets and liabilities of these discontinued product lines have not been reclassified and segregated in the consolidated balance sheets or consolidated statements of cash flows due to their immaterial amounts.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

This section, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations discusses our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. The preparation of these financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. On an on-going basis, we evaluate our estimates and judgments, including those related to revenue recognition and allowance for doubtful accounts, inventory, warranty costs, stock- based compensation expense, intangible assets, goodwill and other long-lived assets, in-process research and development and income taxes. We base our estimates and judgments on historical experience and on various other factors that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

We believe the following critical accounting policies affect the most significant judgments, assumptions and estimates we use in preparing our consolidated financial statements:

 

Revenue Recognition and Accounts Receivable Allowances.    Revenue from product sales is recorded upon transfer of title and risk of loss to the customer provided that there is evidence of an arrangement, the sales price is fixed or determinable, and collection of the related receivable is reasonably assured. In most transactions, we have no obligations to our customers after the date products are shipped other than pursuant to warranty obligations. In some instances, we provide installation, training, support and services to customers after the product has been shipped. We defer the fair value of any undelivered elements until the undelivered element is delivered. Fair value is the price charged when the element is sold separately. Shipping and handling fees billed to customers, if any, are recognized as revenue. The related shipping and handling costs are recognized in cost of sales.

We monitor and track the amount of product returns, provide for accounts receivable allowances and reduce revenue at the time of shipment for the estimated amount of such future returns, based on historical experience. While product returns have historically been within our expectations and the provisions established, there is no assurance that we will continue to experience the same return rates that we have in the past. Any significant increase in product return rates could have a material adverse impact on our operating results for the period or periods in which such returns materialize.

While we maintain a credit approval process, significant judgments are made by management in connection with assessing our customers’ ability to pay at the time of shipment. Despite this assessment, from time to time, our customers are unable to meet their payment obligations. We continuously monitor our customers’ credit worthiness, and use our judgment in establishing a provision for estimated credit losses based upon our historical experience and any specific customer collection issues that we have identified. While such credit losses have historically been within our expectations and the provisions established, there is no assurance that we will continue to experience the same credit loss rates that we have in the past. A significant change in the liquidity or financial position of our customers could have a material adverse impact on the collectability of accounts receivable and our future operating results.

Inventory.    We value our inventory at the lower of cost (first-in, first-out method) or market. We regularly review inventory quantities on hand and record a provision to write-down excess and obsolete inventory to its

 

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estimated net realizable value, if less than cost, based primarily on our estimated forecast of product demand. Once our inventory value is written-down and a new cost basis has been established, the inventory value is not increased due to demand increases. Demand for our products can fluctuate significantly. A significant increase in the demand for our products could result in a short-term increase in the cost of inventory purchases as a result of supply shortages or a decrease in the cost of inventory purchases as a result of volume discounts, while a significant decrease in demand could result in an increase in the charges for excess inventory quantities on hand. In addition, our industry is subject to technological change, new product development and product technological obsolescence that could result in an increase in the amount of obsolete inventory quantities on hand. Therefore, any significant unanticipated changes in demand or technological developments could have a significant impact on the value of our inventory and our reported operating results. For 2011, 2010 and 2009, our total charges for excess and obsolete inventory totaled $14.9 million, $13.2 million and $20.3 million, respectively.

Warranty costs.    We provide for the estimated costs to fulfill customer warranty obligations upon the recognition of the related revenue. We provide warranty coverage for our products ranging from 12 to 36 months, with the majority of our products ranging from 12 to 24 months. We estimate the anticipated costs of repairing our products under such warranties based on the historical costs of the repairs and any known specific product issues. The assumptions we use to estimate warranty accruals are reevaluated periodically in light of actual experience and, when appropriate, the accruals are adjusted. Our determination of the appropriate level of warranty accrual is based upon estimates. Should product failure rates differ from our estimates, actual costs could vary significantly from our expectations.

Stock-Based Compensation Expense.    We record compensation expense for all share-based payment awards to employees and directors based upon the estimated fair market value of the underlying instrument. Accordingly, share-based compensation cost is measured at the grant date, based upon the fair value of the award.

For the past four years, we have been issuing restricted stock units (“RSUs”) as stock-based compensation. For one year we issued restricted stock awards (“RSAs”) and prior to that, we issued share-based options. We also provide employees the opportunity to purchase shares through an Employee Stock Purchase Program (“ESPP”). For restricted stock units, the fair value is the stock price on the date of grant. For share-based options and shares issued under our ESPP, we have estimated the fair value on the date of grant using the Black Scholes pricing model, which is affected by our stock price as well as assumptions regarding a number of complex and subjective variables. These variables include our expected stock price volatility over the term of the awards, expected life, risk free interest rate and expected dividends. We are also required to estimate forfeitures at the time of grant and revise those estimates in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. Management determined that blended volatility, a combination of historical and implied volatility, is more reflective of market conditions and a better indicator of expected volatility than historical or implied volatility alone.

Certain RSUs involve stock to be issued upon the achievement of performance conditions (performance shares) under our stock incentive plans. Such performance shares become available subject to time-based vesting conditions if, and to the extent that, financial or operational performance criteria for the applicable period are achieved. Accordingly, the number of performance shares earned will vary based on the level of achievement of financial or operational performance objectives for the applicable period. Until such time that our performance can ultimately be determined, each quarter we estimate the number of performance shares more likely than not to be earned based on an evaluation of the probability of achieving the performance objectives. Such estimates are revised, if necessary, in subsequent periods when the underlying factors change our evaluation of the probability of achieving the performance objectives. Accordingly, share-based compensation expense associated with performance shares may differ significantly from the amount recorded in the current period.

The assumptions used in calculating the fair value of share-based payment awards represents management’s best estimates, but these estimates involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management’s judgment. As a result, if factors change and we use different assumptions, our stock-based compensation expense could be materially different in the future.

 

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Intangible assets, goodwill and other long-lived assets.    As a result of our acquisitions, we have identified intangible assets and generated significant goodwill. Definite-lived intangible assets are valued based on estimates of future cash flows and amortized over their estimated useful life. Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets are subject to annual impairment testing as well as testing upon the occurrence of any event that indicates a potential impairment. Intangible assets and other long-lived assets are also subject to an impairment test if there is an indicator of impairment. The carrying value and ultimate realization of these assets is dependent upon estimates of future earnings and benefits that we expect to generate from their use. If our expectations of future results and cash flows are significantly diminished, intangible assets and goodwill may be impaired and the resulting charge to operations may be material. When we determine that the carrying value of intangibles or other long-lived assets may not be recoverable based upon the existence of one or more indicators of impairment, we use the projected undiscounted cash flow method to determine whether an impairment exists, and then measure the impairment using discounted cash flows. To measure impairment for goodwill, we compare the fair value of our reporting units by measuring discounted cash flows to the book value of the reporting units. Goodwill would be impaired if the resulting implied fair value of goodwill was less than the recorded book value of the goodwill.

The estimation of useful lives and expected cash flows require us to make significant judgments regarding future periods that are subject to some factors outside of our control. Changes in these estimates can result in significant revisions to the carrying value of these assets and may result in material charges to the results of operations.

We have elected to perform our annual goodwill impairment test as of October 31 of each year, or more often if events or circumstances indicate that there may be impairment. Reporting units are defined as operating segments or one level below an operating segment, referred to as a component. We have determined that our reporting units are components of our one operating segment. We allocate goodwill to reporting units at the time of acquisition and when there is a change in the reporting unit structure and base that allocation on which reporting units will benefit from the acquired assets and liabilities. The estimated fair values of our reporting units were based on discounted cash flow models (“DCF”) derived from internal earnings and internal and external market forecasts. Determining fair value requires the exercise of significant judgment, including judgments about appropriate discount rates, perpetual growth rates, and the amount and timing of expected future cash flows. Discount rates are based on a weighted average cost of capital (“WACC”), which represents the average rate a business must pay its providers of debt and equity. The WACC used to test goodwill is derived from a group of comparable companies. Assumptions in estimating future cash flows are subject to a high degree of judgment and complexity. We make every effort to forecast these future cash flows as accurately as possible with the information available at the time the forecast is developed.

In 2011, we adopted authoritative guidance that allows entities to use a qualitative approach to test goodwill for impairment. This authoritative guidance permits an entity to first perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value. For the reporting units that did not experience any significant adverse changes in their business or reporting structures or any other adverse changes, and the reporting unit’s fair value substantially exceeded its amount from the prior year assessment, we performed the qualitative “Step 0” assessment. In performing the qualitative Step 0 assessment, we considered certain events and circumstances specific to the reporting unit and to the entity as a whole, such as macroeconomic conditions, industry and market considerations, overall financial performance and cost factors when evaluating whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. For the remaining reporting units that did not meet the criteria, we performed the two-step goodwill impairment test. Under the two-step goodwill impairment test, we compared the fair value of each reporting unit to its respective carrying amount, including goodwill. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying amount, goodwill of the reporting unit is not considered impaired. If the reporting unit’s carrying amount exceeds the fair value, the second step of the goodwill impairment test must be completed to measure the amount of the impairment loss, if any. The second step compares the implied fair value of goodwill with the carrying value of goodwill. The implied fair value is determined by allocating the fair value

 

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of the reporting unit to all of the assets and liabilities of that unit, the excess of the fair value over amounts assigned to its assets and liabilities is the implied fair value of goodwill. The implied fair value of goodwill determined in this step is compared to the carrying value of goodwill. If the implied fair value of goodwill is less than the carrying value of goodwill, an impairment loss is recognized equal to the difference.

Due to various factors, including market and economic conditions that contributed to a decline in our forecasted business levels, and the excess of our consolidated net assets over market capitalization for a sustained period of time, we concluded an interim assessment for impairment should be conducted for our goodwill and intangible assets as of April 30, 2009, the date of the triggering event. In the interim assessment, we determined that for certain reporting units, the carrying amount of their net assets exceeded their respective fair values, indicating that a potential impairment existed. After completing the second step of the goodwill impairment test, we recorded a goodwill impairment charge in the second quarter of 2009 of $193.3 million. We tested the long-lived assets in question for recoverability by comparing the sum of the undiscounted cash flows attributable to each respective asset group to their carrying amounts, and determined that the carrying amounts were not recoverable. We then evaluated the fair values of each long-lived asset of the potentially impaired long-lived asset group to determine the amount of the impairment, if any. The fair value of each intangible asset was based primarily on an income approach, which is a present value technique used to measure the fair value of future cash flows produced by the asset. We estimated future cash flows over the remaining useful life of each intangible asset. As a result of this analysis, we determined that certain of our intangible assets related to completed technology, customer relationships, and patents and trademarks, had carrying values that exceeded their estimated fair values. As a result, an impairment charge of $11.7 million was recorded in the second quarter of 2009. In 2010, we reclassified $53.8 million and $11.7 million of the goodwill and intangible asset impairment charges, respectively, to discontinued operations for 2009, as the charges related to the two discontinued product lines.

As of October 31, 2011, the Company performed its annual impairment assessment of goodwill and determined that it is more likely than not that the fair values of the reporting units exceed their carrying amount. We will continue to monitor and evaluate the carrying value of goodwill. If market and economic conditions or business performance deteriorate, this could increase the likelihood of us recording an impairment charge, however, management believes it is not reasonably likely that an impairment will occur at any of its reporting units over the next twelve months.

As a result of a facility consolidation in Asia, we recorded an asset impairment charge of $3.5 million in the second quarter of 2009 resulting from the write-down of the value of a building to its estimated fair value.

In-process research and development.    We value tangible and intangible assets acquired through our business acquisitions, including in-process research and development (“IPR&D”), at fair value. We determine IPR&D through established valuation techniques for various projects for the development of new products and technologies and capitalize IPR&D as an intangible asset. If the projects are completed, the intangible asset will be amortized to earnings over the expected life of the completed product. If the R&D projects are abandoned, we will write-off the related intangible asset.

The value of IPR&D is determined using the income approach, which discounts expected future cash flows from projects under development to their net present value. Each project is analyzed and estimates and judgments are made to determine the technological innovations included in the utilization of core technology, the complexity, cost, time to complete development, any alternative future use or current technological feasibility and the stage of completion.

Income taxes.    We evaluate the realizability of our net deferred tax assets and assess the need for a valuation allowance on a quarterly basis. The future benefit to be derived from our deferred tax assets is dependent upon our ability to generate sufficient future taxable income to realize the assets. We record a valuation allowance to reduce our net deferred tax assets to the amount that may be more likely than not to be

 

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realized. To the extent we established a valuation allowance, an expense is recorded within the provision for income taxes line in the consolidated statements of operations. In future periods, if we were to determine that it was more likely than not that we would not be able to realize the recorded amount of our remaining net deferred tax assets, an adjustment to the valuation allowance would be recorded as an increase to income tax expense in the period such determination was made.

Accounting for income taxes requires a two-step approach to recognize and measure uncertain tax positions. The first step is to evaluate the tax position for recognition by determining if, based on the technical merits, it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained upon audit, including resolutions of related appeals or litigation processes, if any. The second step is to measure the tax benefit as the largest amount that is more than 50% likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement. We re-evaluate these uncertain tax positions on a quarterly basis. This evaluation is based on factors including, but not limited to, changes in facts or circumstances, changes in tax law, effectively settled issues under audit and new audit activity. Any change in these factors could result in the recognition of a tax benefit or an additional charge to the tax provision.

Results of Operations

The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the percentage of total net sales of certain line items included in our consolidated statements of operations data:

 

     Years Ended December 31,  
     2011     2010     2009  

Net revenues:

      

Product

     87.4     89.5     82.7

Service

     12.6        10.5        17.3   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total net revenues

     100.0     100.0     100.0

Cost of revenues:

      

Product

     47.1        49.4        55.9   

Service

     7.3        6.2        10.9   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total cost of revenues

     54.4     55.6     66.8
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit

     45.6     44.4     33.2

Research and development

     7.4        7.3        12.8   

Selling, general and administrative

     15.6        14.1        25.6   

Amortization of acquired intangible assets

     0.1        0.2        0.7   

Goodwill and asset impairment

                   36.4   

Gain on sale of asset

            (0.1       

Restructuring

                   1.4   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income (loss) from operations

     22.5     22.9     (43.7 )% 

Interest income, net

     0.1        0.1        0.4   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes

     22.6     23.0     (43.3 )% 

Provision (benefit) for income taxes

     6.8        7.4        (5.3
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income (loss) from continuing operations

     15.8     15.6     (38.0 )% 

Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of taxes

            1.1        (16.1
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net income (loss)

     15.8     16.7     (54.1 )% 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

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Year Ended 2011 Compared to 2010 and 2009

Net Revenues

 

     Years Ended December 31,      % Change
in 2011
    % Change
in 2010
 
      2011      2010      2009       
     (Dollars in millions)  

Product

   $ 719.0       $ 763.4       $ 325.0         (5.8 )%      134.9

Service

     103.5         89.7         67.7         15.4        32.4   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total net revenues

   $ 822.5       $ 853.1       $ 392.7         (3.6 )%      117.2
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Product revenues decreased $44.4 million during 2011 compared to 2010. Product revenues related to our semiconductor capital equipment manufacturer and semiconductor device manufacturer customers decreased by $51.6 million or 10.6%, as we believe that slowing consumer spending has resulted in lower electronics demand, rising chip inventories and a slowing of investment in semiconductor production capacity. Our product revenues for other advanced markets, which exclude semiconductor capital equipment and semiconductor device product applications, increased by $7.2 million or 2.6%. We saw an increase in our solar and general industrial markets, offset by decreases in film, LED, medical and other markets. Our domestic product revenues decreased by $93.2 million or 20.7%, mainly due to a high concentration of sales to the semiconductor markets. Our international markets increased by $48.8 million or 15.6%, mainly due to sales in China, which increased by $36.7 million. This increase was mainly due to product revenues from a thin film solar customer in China.

Product revenues increased $438.4 million during 2010 compared to 2009. During 2010, we believe a recovery in the global economy contributed to an increase in demand for our products in all of the markets we serve. Our increase in overall product revenues was primarily due to the increase in worldwide demand from our semiconductor capital equipment manufacturer and semiconductor device manufacturer customers. Product revenues related to these customers increased $305.5 million or 175.2% compared to the same period for the prior year. Revenues related to other advanced markets increased $133.0 million or 88.3% compared to the same period for the prior year. The increase in demand in our other advanced markets included the LED, medical, pharmaceutical, environmental, thin films, solar and other markets. Our domestic product revenues increased by $262.5 million or 139.2% mainly due to a high concentration of sales to the semiconductor capital equipment and device manufacturer customers. Our international product revenues increased $176.0 million or 129.1% during 2010. This increase consists of a $107.7 million increase in product revenues from our semiconductor customers and an increase in product revenues of $68.3 million related to other advanced markets.

Service revenues consisted mainly of fees for services related to the maintenance and repair of our products, software maintenance, installation services and training. Service revenues increased $13.8 million during 2011 compared to 2010 as a result of a larger installed base of products and due to our continued investment in 2011 to grow our worldwide service business. Service revenues increased $22.0 million during 2010 compared to 2009 as a result of the improvement in the global economy in 2010 compared to 2009.

Total international net revenues, including product and service, were $431.4 million for 2011 or 52.5% of net sales compared to $369.0 million for 2010 or 43.2% of net sales and $180.1 million or 45.8% of net sales for 2009.

Gross Profit

 

     Years Ended December 31,     % Points
Change  in
2011
    % Points
Change in
2010
 
        2011         2010         2009        
     (As a percentage of net revenues)  

Product

     46.1     44.8     32.4     1.3     12.4

Service

     42.0        41.2        37.0        0.8        4.2   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total gross profit percentage

     45.6     44.4     33.2     1.2     11.2
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

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Gross profit on product revenues increased by 1.3 percentage points during 2011 compared to the prior year. The increase was mainly due to favorable product mix, which accounted for 4.6 percentage points of the overall increase. In addition, 0.9 percentage points of the overall increase is due to favorable foreign exchange rate fluctuations and 0.4 percentage points was due to a duties refund received in late 2011 on duties that were paid in prior years. These increases were partially offset by 2.4 percentage points due to higher overhead, 1.1 percentage points due to higher excess and obsolete inventory net charges and 1.1 percentage points due to unfavorable product revenue volume.

Gross profit on product revenues increased by 12.4 percentage points during 2010 compared to the prior year. The increase was mainly due to an increase in product revenue volumes, which accounted for 8.2 percentage points of the overall increase, and an increase of 1.6 percentage points due to favorable product mix. In addition, our gross profit increased by 2.4 percentage points due to lower excess and obsolete inventory-related net charges. The higher excess and obsolete inventory related charges in 2009 were primarily a result of a lower inventory consumption plan in the first quarter of 2009 that we implemented in response to the weakness in the markets we served during that period.

Cost of service revenues consists primarily of costs of providing services for repair and training which includes salaries and related expenses and other fixed costs. Service gross profit for 2011 increased 0.8 percentage points compared to the same period for the prior year. Of this increase, 1.8 percentage points was due to favorable volume and 1.4 percentage points was due to favorable foreign exchange rate fluctuations. These increases were offset by 2.5 percentage points related to unfavorable mix. Service gross profit for 2010 increased 4.2 percentage points compared to the same period for the prior year. The increase was mainly a result of higher service revenue since a portion of overhead costs are fixed.

Research and Development

 

     Years Ended December 31,      % Change
in 2011
    % Change
in 2010
 
      2011      2010      2009       
     (Dollars in millions)  

Research and development expenses

   $ 61.0       $ 62.7       $ 50.2         (2.6 )%      24.8

Research and development expenses decreased $1.7 million during 2011 compared to the prior year. The decrease consists mainly of a $1.1 million decrease in spending on project materials and a $0.6 million decrease in consulting costs, both of which were a result of cost control measures taken primarily in the second half of 2011.

Research and development expenses increased $12.5 million during 2010 compared to the prior year. The increase includes a $5.9 million increase in compensation expense, a $2.4 million increase in spending on project materials, a $3.0 million increase in consulting and other costs and a $1.1 million increase in patent and other legal related costs. The increase in compensation expense is primarily due to the Company’s restoration of both the incentive compensation plan and certain employee benefits that were suspended as part of cost control measures in 2009. Our favorable operating profit levels in 2010 resulted in an increase in incentive compensation expense compared to 2009, since our incentive compensation plan is based on achieving certain operating profit levels.

Our research and development is primarily focused on developing and improving our instruments, components, subsystems and process control solutions to improve process performance and productivity.

We have thousands of products and our research and development efforts primarily consist of a large number of projects related to these products and new product development, none of which is individually material to us. Current projects typically have durations of 3 to 30 months depending upon whether the product is an enhancement of existing technology or a new product. Our current initiatives include projects to enhance the

 

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performance characteristics of older products, to develop new products and to integrate various technologies into subsystems. These projects support in large part the transition in the semiconductor industry to smaller integrated circuit geometries and in the flat panel display and solar markets to larger substrate sizes, which require more advanced process control technology. Research and development expenses consist primarily of salaries and related expenses for personnel engaged in research and development, fees paid to consultants, material costs for prototypes and other expenses related to the design, development, testing and enhancement of our products as well as legal costs associated with maintaining and defending our intellectual property.

We believe that the continued investment in research and development and ongoing development of new products are essential to the expansion of our markets, and expect to continue to make significant investment in research and development activities. We are subject to risks if products are not developed in a timely manner, due to rapidly changing customer requirements and competitive threats from other companies and technologies. Our success primarily depends on our products being designed into new generations of equipment for the semiconductor industry. We develop products that are technologically advanced so that they are positioned to be chosen for use in each successive generation of semiconductor capital equipment. If our products are not chosen to be designed into our customers’ products, our net sales may be reduced during the lifespan of those products.

Selling, General and Administrative

 

     Years Ended December 31,      % Change
in 2011
    % Change
in 2010
 
     2011      2010      2009       
     (Dollars in millions)  

Selling, general and administrative expenses

   $ 128.0       $ 119.8       $ 100.4         6.8     19.3

Selling, general and administrative expenses increased $8.2 million during 2011 compared to 2010. The increase consists primarily of a $4.6 million unfavorable impact from foreign exchange fluctuations, mainly related to changes in the Japanese Yen, and a $4.0 million increase in professional fees, primarily related to information technology projects.

Selling, general and administrative expenses increased $19.4 million during 2010 compared to 2009. The increase includes a $17.9 million increase in compensation expense, a $3.1 million increase in consulting, professional and other fees and a $1.6 million increase in travel related expenses. The increase was partially offset by a $1.4 million decrease in the provision of uncollectable accounts receivable, a $1.1 million decrease in depreciation and facility related costs and a $1.1 million favorable impact from foreign exchange fluctuations. The increase in compensation expense is primarily due to the Company’s restoration of both the incentive compensation plan and certain employee benefits that were suspended as part of cost control measures in 2009. Our favorable operating profit levels in 2010 resulted in an increase in incentive compensation expense compared to 2009, since our incentive compensation plan is based on achieving certain operating profit levels.

Amortization of Acquired Intangible Assets

 

     Years Ended
December 31,
     % Change
in 2011
    % Change
in 2010
 
     2011      2010      2009       
     (Dollars in millions)  

Amortization of acquired intangible assets

   $ 1.0       $ 1.3       $ 2.8         (20.9 )%      (53.5 )% 

Amortization expense decreased by $0.3 million and $1.5 million for 2011 and 2010, respectively, as certain acquired intangible assets became fully amortized during each year.

 

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Goodwill and Asset Impairment Charges

 

     Years Ended
December 31,
 
     2011      2010      2009  
     (Dollars in millions)  

Goodwill and asset impairment charges

   $       $       $ 143.0   

During 2009, we reviewed our goodwill and long-lived assets for potential impairment as a result of market and economic conditions that contributed to a decline in our forecasted business levels, and the excess of our consolidated net assets over our market capitalization for a sustained period of time. As a result of this impairment assessment, we recorded non-cash goodwill and intangible asset impairment charges of $193.3 million and $11.7 million, respectively. In addition, as a result of a facility consolidation in Asia in the second quarter of 2009, we recorded a non-cash impairment charge of $3.5 million to continuing operations resulting from the write-down of the value of a building to its estimated fair value. In 2010, we reclassified $53.8 million and $11.7 million of the goodwill and intangible asset impairment charges, respectively, to discontinued operations for 2009, as the charges related to the two discontinued product lines.

Gain on sale of asset

 

     Years Ended
December 31,
 
     2011      2010      2009  
     (Dollars in millions)  

Gain on sale of asset

   $       $ 0.7       $   

During the first quarter of 2010, we sold two vacated facilities for proceeds of $2.1 million and recorded a $0.7 million net gain on the sale.

Restructuring

 

     Years Ended
December 31,
 
     2011      2010      2009  
     (Dollars in millions)  

Restructuring

   $       $       $ 5.5   

In light of the 2008 and 2009 global financial crisis and its impact on our semiconductor equipment OEM customers and the other markets we serve, we initiated a restructuring plan in the first quarter of 2009. The plan included a reduction in our worldwide headcount of approximately 630 people, which represented approximately 24% of our global workforce. The restructuring charges of $5.5 million in 2009 were primarily for severance and other charges associated with the reductions in workforce. The restructuring plan was completed in the first quarter of 2010.

Interest Income, Net

 

     Years Ended
December 31,
     % Change
in 2011
    % Change
in 2010
 
     2011      2010      2009       
     (Dollars in millions)  

Interest income, net

   $ 1.1       $ 0.9       $ 1.6         22.9     (44.1 )% 

 

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Net interest income increased $0.2 million during 2011 compared to the prior year due to an increase in investment balances and a change in the mix of the overall investment portfolio. Net interest income decreased $0.7 million during 2010 compared to the prior year mainly due to a general decrease in market rates and the investment mix of our portfolio during this period.

Provision (Benefit) for Income Taxes

 

     Years Ended December 31,  
     2011      2010      2009  
     (Dollars in millions)  

Provision (benefit) for income taxes

   $ 56.3       $ 63.5       $ (20.7

The provision (benefit) for income taxes in 2011, 2010 and 2009 are comprised of U.S. federal, state and foreign income taxes.

Our effective tax rate for the years 2011, 2010 and 2009 was 30.3%, 32.3% and (12.2)%, respectively. The effective tax rate in 2011 and related tax provision is lower than the U.S. statutory tax rate primarily due to geographic mix of income and profits earned by our international subsidiaries being taxed at rates lower than the U.S. statutory tax rate.

The effective tax rate in 2010 and related tax provision is lower than the U.S. statutory tax rate primarily due to geographic mix of income and profits earned by our international subsidiaries being taxed at rates lower than the U.S. statutory tax rate.

The effective tax rate in 2009 and related tax benefit was lower than the U.S. statutory tax rate primarily due to non-deductible goodwill impairment charges of $139.4 million during the second quarter of 2009, partially offset by discrete reserve releases.

At December 31, 2011, our total amount of gross unrecognized tax benefits, which excludes interest and penalties, was approximately $35.2 million. At December 31, 2010, our total amount of gross unrecognized tax benefits, which excludes interest and penalties, was approximately $21.3 million. The net increase from December 31, 2010 was primarily attributable to a current year increase in reserves for uncertain tax positions, partially offset by a reduction due to the effective settlement of a foreign tax audit. As of December 31, 2011, if these benefits were recognized in a future period, the timing of which is not estimable, the net unrecognized tax benefit of $15.4 million, excluding interest and penalties, would impact our effective tax rate. We accrue interest expense and, if applicable, penalties, for any uncertain tax positions. Interest and penalties are classified as a component of income tax expense. At December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009 we had accrued interest on unrecognized tax benefits of approximately $1.0 million, $1.0 million and $0.7 million, respectively.

Over the next 12 months it is reasonably possible that we may recognize $2.8 million to $3.4 million of previously unrecognized tax benefits related to various U.S. federal, state and foreign tax positions as a result of the conclusion of various audits and the expiration of statutes of limitations. We are subject to examination by federal, state and foreign tax authorities. Our U.S. federal tax filings are open for examination for tax years 2007 through present. The statute of limitations in our other tax jurisdictions remains open between fiscal years 2004 through present.

On a quarterly basis, we evaluate both positive and negative evidence that affect the realizability of net deferred tax assets and assess the need for a valuation allowance. The future benefit to be derived from our deferred tax assets is dependent upon our ability to generate sufficient future taxable income to realize the assets. During 2011, we increased our valuation allowance by $1.2 million primarily related to capital losses incurred from our foreign affiliates because we determined it is more likely than not that the deferred tax assets related to these attributes will not be realized. In 2010, we increased our valuation allowance by $20.1 million primarily

 

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related to capital losses incurred from our discontinued business operations. In 2011, we recorded a net benefit to income tax expense of $2.1 million, excluding interest and penalties, due to discrete reserve releases primarily related to the effective settlement of a German tax audit for years 2001 through 2005. In 2010, we did not record a net benefit to income tax expense. In 2009, we recorded a net benefit to income tax expense of $5.7 million, excluding interest and penalties, due to discrete reserve releases primarily related to the close of the 2005 and 2006 U.S. federal tax audits.

During 2006, we received a notification letter from the Israeli Ministry of Industry Trade and Labor (“MITL”) indicating that our Israeli operations were in compliance with requirements relating to the tax holiday granted to our manufacturing operations in Israel in 2001. This tax holiday expired at December 31, 2011 and was subject to meeting continued investment, employment and other requirements under the guidelines of the MITL. This tax holiday resulted in income tax savings of approximately $1.0 million, $2.7 million and $0.3 million for the years 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively.

Our future effective income tax rate depends on various factors, such as tax legislation and the geographic composition of our pre-tax income. We monitor these factors and timely adjust our effective tax rate accordingly. Additionally, the effective tax rate could be adversely affected by changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities. In particular, the carrying value of deferred tax assets, which are predominantly in the United States, is dependent on our ability to generate sufficient future taxable income in the United States. While we believe we have adequately provided for all tax positions, amounts asserted by taxing authorities could materially differ from our accrued positions as a result of uncertain and complex application of tax regulations. Additionally, the recognition and measurement of certain tax benefits include estimates and judgment by management and inherently includes subjectivity. Accordingly, we could record additional provisions due to U.S. federal, state, and foreign tax-related matters in the future as we revise estimates or settle or otherwise resolve the underlying matters.

Discontinued Operations

 

     Years Ended December 31,  
     2011      2010      2009  
     (Dollars in millions)  

Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of taxes

   $       $ 9.7       $ (63.3

During 2010, we divested two product lines as their growth potential no longer met our long-term strategic objectives. We completed the sale of Ion on May 17, 2010 and the sale of the assets of our YDI business on August 11, 2010 for a total of $15.6 million of net cash proceeds, after expenses, and recorded a $4.4 million pre-tax gain on the combined sales. For the year ended December 31, 2009, the loss from discontinued operations includes $65.5 million of goodwill and intangible asset impairment charges. These charges were a result of the interim impairment assessment performed on April 30, 2009.

The two product lines have been accounted for as discontinued operations. Accordingly, their results of operations have been reclassified to discontinued operations in the consolidated statements of operations for all periods presented. The assets and liabilities of these discontinued product lines have not been reclassified or segregated in the consolidated balance sheets or consolidated statements of cash flows due to their immaterial amounts.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Cash, cash equivalents and short-term marketable investments totaled $565.5 million at December 31, 2011, an increase of $133.6 million compared to $431.9 million at December 31, 2010. This increase was mainly due to the net cash provided by operating activities as a result of our net income and net proceeds related to employee stock option awards, partially offset by dividend payments to our common stockholders and capital expenditures.

 

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The primary driver in our current and anticipated future cash flows is and will continue to be cash generated from operations, consisting mainly of our net income and changes in operating assets and liabilities. In periods when our sales are growing, higher sales to customers will result in increased trade receivables, and inventories will generally increase as we build products for future sales. This may result in lower cash generated from operations. Conversely, in periods when our sales are declining, our trade accounts receivable and inventory balances will generally decrease, resulting in increased cash from operations.

Net cash provided by operating activities was $156.0 million for 2011 and resulted mainly from net income of $129.7 million, which included non-cash net charges of $39.1 million, partially offset by an increase in working capital of $15.5 million. The increase in working capital consisted primarily of an increase in inventory of $11.7 million, a decrease in accounts payable of $11.6 million, an increase in other operating assets of $7.7 million and an increase in income taxes of $5.3 million. These increases were offset by a decrease in accounts receivable of $17.9 million, and an increase in accrued expenses and other operating liabilities of $2.9 million. The increase in inventory relates to specific solar projects where shipment has been delayed by our customers. The decrease in accounts payable and accounts receivable is caused by a slowdown in our business in the fourth quarter of 2011 compared to the fourth quarter of 2010.

Net cash provided by operating activities was $163.5 million for 2010 and resulted mainly from net income of $142.6 million, which included non-cash net charges of $37.7 million, partially offset by an increase in working capital of $19.8 million. The increase in working capital consisted primarily of a $52.5 million increase in inventory and a $42.5 million increase in accounts receivable. These increases were partially offset by a $40.9 million increase in accrued expenses and other liabilities, a $22.8 million decrease in income taxes receivable and a $11.2 million increase in accounts payable. The increases in working capital are primarily related to our increase in business levels in 2010. The increase in accrued expenses includes an increase of $20.6 million in accrued compensation related to increases in incentive compensation and accrued salaries and benefits. The decrease in income taxes receivable was primarily due to the collection of an income tax refund of $24.7 million.

Net cash used in investing activities was $6.1 million for 2011 and resulted primarily from the purchase of property and equipment of $15.6 million, partially offset by net maturities and sales of investments of $9.9 million. The $15.6 million increase in plant and equipment was primarily for the purchase of calibration and test equipment. Net cash used in investing activities was $105.6 million for 2010 and resulted primarily from the net purchases of $104.1 million of available-for-sale investments and purchases of plant and equipment of $15.8 million, partially offset by $15.6 million in net proceeds from the sale of the discontinued product lines. The $15.8 million increase in plant and equipment was primarily for the purchase of calibration and test equipment.

Net cash provided by financing activities was $2.4 million for 2011 and consisted primarily of $28.5 million received in net proceeds related to employee stock awards, $5.3 million related to excess tax benefit from stock-based compensation and $1.9 million in net proceeds from short-term borrowings. These increases were partially offset by $31.4 million of dividend payments made to common stockholders and $2.0 million related to the repurchase of common stock. Net cash used in financing activities was $5.0 million for 2010 and consisted primarily of $13.7 million in net repayment of short-term borrowings, partially offset by $6.5 million in net proceeds related to stock-based compensation.

Our Japanese subsidiary has lines of credit and short-term borrowing arrangements with two financial institutions which provide for aggregate borrowings as of December 31, 2011 of up to an equivalent of $32.2 million U.S. dollars, which generally expire and are renewed at three month intervals. Total borrowings outstanding under these arrangements at December 31, 2011 were $1.9 million at an average interest rate of 0.65%. There were no borrowings outstanding under these arrangements at December 31, 2010.

We have provided financial guarantees for certain unsecured borrowings and have standby letters of credit, some of which do not have fixed expiration dates. At December 31, 2011, our maximum exposure as a result of these standby letters of credit and performance bonds was approximately $1.0 million.

 

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On July 25, 2011, our Board of Directors approved, and on July 27, 2011 we publicly announced, a share repurchase program for the repurchase of up to an aggregate of $200 million of our common stock from time to time in open market purchases, privately negotiated transactions or through other appropriate means. The timing and quantity of any shares repurchased will depend upon a variety of factors, including business conditions, stock market conditions and business development activities, including but not limited to merger and acquisition opportunities. These repurchases may be commenced, suspended or discontinued at any time without prior notice. During 2011, we repurchased approximately 86,000 shares of our common stock for $2.0 million at an average price of $23.40 per share.

Holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends when they are declared by our Board of Directors. For the year ended December 31, 2011, we paid cash dividends of $31.4 million in aggregate, or $0.60 per share. Future dividend declarations, if any, as well as the record and payment dates for such dividends, are subject to the final determination of our Board of Directors.

On February 13, 2012, our Board of Directors declared a quarterly cash dividend of $0.15 per share to be paid on March 16, 2012 to shareholders of record as of March 1, 2012.

Future payments due under debt, lease and purchase commitment obligations as of December 31, 2011 are as follows:

 

     Payment Due By Period  

Contractual Obligations (In thousands)

   Total      Less than
1 Year
     1-3 years      3-5 years      After
5 years
     Other (3)  

Operating lease obligations

   $ 28,723       $ 7,619       $ 10,558       $ 6,557       $ 3,989       $   

Purchase obligations(1)

     141,490         126,776         11,002         3,712                   

Other long-term liabilities reflected on the Balance Sheet under U.S. GAAP(2)

     32,211         201         99         60         15,767         16,084   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

   $ 202,424       $ 134,596       $ 21,659       $ 10,329       $ 19,756       $ 16,084   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(1)

As of December 31, 2011, we have entered into purchase commitments for certain inventory components and other equipment and services used in our normal operations. The majority of these purchase commitments covered by these arrangements are for periods of less than one year and aggregate to approximately $141.5 million.

 

(2)

The majority of this balance relates to income taxes payable and accrued compensation for certain executives related to supplemental retirement benefits.

 

(3)

The majority of this balance relates to our reserve for uncertain tax positions.

We believe that our current cash position and available borrowing capacity, together with the cash anticipated to be generated from operations, will be sufficient to satisfy our estimated working capital, planned capital expenditure requirements, and any future cash dividends declared by our Board of Directors or share repurchases through at least the next 12 months and the foreseeable future.

Derivatives

We enter into derivative instruments for risk management purposes only, including derivatives designated as hedging instruments and those utilized as economic hedges. We operate internationally, and in the normal course of business, are exposed to fluctuations in interest rates and foreign exchange rates. These fluctuations can increase the costs of financing, investing and operating the business. We have used derivative instruments, such as forward contracts, to manage certain foreign currency exposure.

 

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By nature, all financial instruments involve market and credit risks. We enter into derivative instruments with major investment grade financial institutions and no collateral is required. We have policies to monitor the credit risk of these counterparties. While there can be no assurance, we do not anticipate any material non-performance by any of these counterparties.

We hedge a portion of our forecasted foreign currency denominated intercompany sales of inventory, over a maximum period of eighteen months, using forward foreign exchange contracts accounted for as cash-flow hedges related to Japanese, South Korean, British and European currencies. To the extent these derivatives are effective in offsetting the variability of the hedged cash flows, and otherwise meet the hedge accounting criteria, changes in the derivatives’ fair value are not included in current earnings but are included in accumulated other comprehensive income in stockholders’ equity. These changes in fair value will subsequently be reclassified into earnings, as applicable, when the forecasted transaction occurs. To the extent that a previously designated hedging transaction is no longer an effective hedge, any ineffectiveness measured in the hedging relationship is recorded currently in earnings in the period it occurs. The cash flows resulting from forward exchange contracts are classified in the consolidated statements of cash flows as part of cash flows from operating activities. We do not enter into derivative instruments for trading or speculative purposes.

To the extent that hedge accounting criteria is not met, the foreign currency forward contracts are considered economic hedges and changes in the fair value of these contracts are recorded immediately in earnings in the period in which they occur. These include hedges that are used to reduce exchange rate risks arising from the change in fair value of certain foreign currency denominated assets and liabilities (i.e., payables, receivables) and other economic hedges where the hedge accounting criteria were not met.

We had forward exchange contracts with notional amounts totaling $36.1 million outstanding at December 31, 2011 of which $18.7 million were outstanding to exchange Japanese yen to U.S. dollars. We had forward exchange contracts with notional amounts totaling $87.7 million outstanding at December 31, 2010 of which $50.1 million were outstanding to exchange Japanese yen for U.S. dollars.

As of December 31, 2011, the unrealized loss that will be reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income to earnings over the next twelve months is $523 thousand. The ineffective portions of the derivatives are recorded in selling, general and administrative costs and were immaterial in 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively.

We sometimes hedge certain intercompany and other payables with forward exchange contracts. Typically, as these derivatives hedge existing amounts that are denominated in foreign currencies, the derivatives do not qualify for hedge accounting. The foreign exchange gain or loss on these derivatives was immaterial in 2011, 2010 and 2009.

Realized and unrealized gains and losses on forward exchange contracts that do not qualify for hedge accounting are recognized currently in earnings. The cash flows resulting from forward exchange contracts are classified in our consolidated statements of cash flows as part of cash flows from operating activities. We do not hold or issue derivative financial instruments for trading purposes.

Gains and losses on forward exchange contracts that qualify for hedge accounting are classified in selling, general and administrative expenses in 2011 and totaled a loss of $4.0 million. In 2010 and 2009, these gains and losses were classified in cost of products and totaled a gain of $1.0 million and loss of $1.1 million, respectively.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

We do not have any financial partnerships with unconsolidated entities, such as entities often referred to as structured finance, special purpose entities or variable interest entities which are often established for the purpose

 

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of facilitating off-balance sheet arrangements or other contractually narrow or limited purposes. Accordingly, we are not exposed to any financing, liquidity, market or credit risk that could arise if we had such relationships.

Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

In September 2011, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued an Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) which simplifies how companies test goodwill for impairment. Under the amendments, an entity has the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If, after assessing the totality of events or circumstances, an entity determines it is not more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, then performing the two-step impairment test is unnecessary. However, if an entity concludes otherwise, then it is required to perform the first step of the two-step impairment test by calculating the fair value of the reporting unit and comparing the fair value with the carrying amount of the reporting unit, as described in the goodwill accounting standard. The amendments are effective for annual and interim goodwill impairment tests performed for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2011. Early adoption is permitted. We adopted this new ASU in the fourth quarter of 2011. The new ASU did not have a material effect on our consolidated financial statements.

In June 2011, the FASB issued an ASU which eliminates the option to present the components of other comprehensive income as part of the statement of equity and requires an entity to present the total of comprehensive income, the components of net income, and the components of other comprehensive income either in a single continuous statement of comprehensive income or in two separate but consecutive statements. The amendments are effective retrospectively for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2011. The ASU requires changes in presentation only and we do not expect it will have a material effect on our consolidated financial statements.

In May 2011, the FASB issued an ASU which applies to all reporting entities that are required or permitted to measure or disclose the fair value of an asset, a liability, or an instrument classified in a reporting entity’s shareholders’ equity in the financial statements. The amendments do not extend the use of fair value accounting, but provide guidance on how it should be applied where its use is already required or permitted by other standards within U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“U.S. GAAP”). The amendments change the wording used to describe many requirements in U.S. GAAP for measuring fair value and for disclosing information about fair value measurements. Additionally, the ASU clarifies the FASB’s intent about the application of existing fair value measurements. The amendments in this ASU are to be applied prospectively. For public entities, the amendments are effective during interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2011. Early application by public entities is not permitted. We do not expect the new ASU to have a material effect on our consolidated financial statements.

 

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

Market Risk and Sensitivity Analysis

Our primary exposures to market risks include fluctuations in interest rates on our investment portfolio, short-term debt as well as fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates.

Foreign Exchange Rate Risk

We mainly enter into forward exchange contracts to reduce currency exposure arising from intercompany sales of inventory. We sometimes also enter into forward exchange contracts to reduce foreign exchange risks arising from the change in fair value of certain foreign currency denominated assets and liabilities.

There were forward exchange contracts with notional amounts totaling $36.1 million and $87.7 million outstanding at December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively. Of such forward exchange contracts, $18.7 million

 

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and $50.1 million, respectively, were outstanding to exchange Japanese yen for U.S. dollars with the remaining amounts relating to contracts to exchange the British pound, South Korean won and Euro for U.S. dollars. The potential fair value loss for a hypothetical 10% adverse change in the currency exchange rate on our forward exchange contracts at December 31, 2011 and 2010 would be $4.0 million and $9.7 million, respectively. The potential losses in 2011 and 2010 were estimated by calculating the fair value of the forward exchange contracts at December 31, 2011 and 2010 and comparing that with those calculated using hypothetical forward currency exchange rates.

Interest Rate Risk

Due to its short-term duration, the fair value of our cash and investment portfolio at December 31, 2011 and 2010 approximated its carrying value. Interest rate risk was estimated as the potential decrease in fair value resulting from a hypothetical 10% increase in interest rates for securities contained in the investment portfolio. The resulting hypothetical fair value was not materially different from the year-end carrying values.

From time to time, we have outstanding lines of credit and short-term borrowings with variable interest rates, primarily denominated in Japanese yen. At December 31, 2011, we had $1.9 million outstanding related to these short-term borrowings at an average interest rate of 0.65%. There were no outstanding borrowings at December 31, 2010. Due to the short-term nature and amount of this short-term debt, a hypothetical change of 10% in interest rates would not have a material effect on our near-term financial condition or results of operations.

 

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Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To Board of Directors and Shareholders of

MKS Instruments, Inc.:

In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements listed in the index appearing under Item 15(a)(1) present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of MKS Instruments, Inc. and its subsidiaries at December 31, 2011 and December 31, 2010, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2011 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. In addition, in our opinion, the financial statement schedule listed in the index appearing under Item 15(a)(2) presents fairly, in all material respects, the information set forth therein when read in conjunction with the related consolidated financial statements. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2011, based on criteria established in Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). The Company’s management is responsible for these financial statements and financial statement schedule, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting appearing under Item 9A. Our responsibility is to express opinions on these financial statements, on the financial statement schedule, and on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our integrated audits. We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audits of the financial statements included examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, and evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP

Boston, Massachusetts

February 24, 2012

 

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MKS Instruments, Inc.

Consolidated Balance Sheets

 

     December 31,  
               2011                           2010             
     (in thousands, except share data)  
ASSETS   

Current assets:

     

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 312,916       $ 162,476   

Short-term investments

     252,603         269,457   

Trade accounts receivable, net of allowances of $2,516 and $2,557 at December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively

     120,894         138,181   

Inventories

     153,632         156,429   

Deferred income taxes

     10,618         13,775   

Other current assets

     34,238         12,577   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total current assets

     884,901         752,895   

Property, plant and equipment, net

     72,487         68,976   

Long-term investments

     7,873           

Goodwill

     140,084         140,020   

Intangible assets, net

     1,043         1,743   

Other assets

     12,266         18,779   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total assets

   $ 1,118,654       $ 982,413   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY   

Current liabilities:

     

Short-term borrowings

   $ 1,932       $   

Accounts payable

     24,853         36,427   

Accrued compensation

     21,774         29,944   

Income taxes payable

     7,548         5,347   

Other current liabilities

     40,324         37,968   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total current liabilities

     96,431         109,686   

Other liabilities

     32,211         25,688   

Commitments and contingencies (Note 23)

     

Stockholders’ equity:

     

Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value, 2,000,000 shares authorized; none issued and outstanding

               

Common Stock, no par value, 200,000,000 shares authorized; 52,491,948 and 50,648,601 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively

     113         113   

Additional paid-in capital

     707,419         663,792   

Retained earnings

     268,870         171,356   

Accumulated other comprehensive income

     13,610         11,778   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total stockholders’ equity

     990,012         847,039   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

   $ 1,118,654       $ 982,413   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.

 

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MKS Instruments, Inc.

Consolidated Statements of Operations

 

     Years Ended December 31,  
     2011      2010     2009  
     (in thousands, except per share data)  

Net Revenues:

       

Products

   $ 719,002       $ 763,452      $ 324,951   

Services

     103,515         89,662        67,742   
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total net revenues

     822,517         853,114        392,693   

Cost of revenues:

       

Cost of products

     387,445         421,777        219,776   

Cost of service

     60,084         52,699        42,701   
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total cost of revenues

     447,529         474,476        262,477   

Gross profit

     374,988         378,638        130,216   

Research and development

     61,033         62,689        50,212   

Selling, general and administrative

     128,015         119,841        100,429   

Amortization of acquired intangible assets

     1,015         1,283        2,762   

Goodwill and asset impairment charges

                    142,958   

Gain on sale of asset

             (682       

Restructuring

                    5,516   
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income (loss) from operations

     184,925         195,507        (171,661

Interest income

     1,159         1,052        1,703   

Interest expense

     32         135        62   
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes

     186,052         196,424        (170,020

Provision (benefit) for income taxes

     56,321         63,505        (20,659
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income (loss) from continuing operations

     129,731         132,919        (149,361

Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of taxes

             9,668        (63,298
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net income (loss)

   $ 129,731       $ 142,587      $ (212,659
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Basic income (loss) per share:

       

Continuing operations

   $ 2.49       $ 2.66      $ (3.03

Discontinued operations

             0.19        (1.28
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net income (loss)

   $ 2.49       $ 2.85      $ (4.31
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Diluted income (loss) per share:

       

Continuing operations

   $ 2.45       $ 2.61      $ (3.03

Discontinued operations

             0.19        (1.28
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net income (loss)

   $ 2.45       $ 2.80      $ (4.31
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cash dividends paid per common share

   $ 0.60       $      $   
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Weighted average common shares outstanding:

       

Basic

     52,169         50,077        49,318   
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Diluted

     52,847         50,927        49,318   
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.

 

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Table of Contents

MKS Instruments, Inc.

Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity

 

    For the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009  
    Common Stock     Additional
Paid-In
Capital
    Retained
Earnings
    Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income (loss)
    Comprehensive
Income (loss)
    Total
Stockholders’
Equity
 
    Shares     Amount            
    (in thousands, except share data)  

Balance at December 31, 2008

    49,275,975      $ 113      $ 637,938      $ 241,428      $ 7,219        $ 886,698   

Net issuance under stock-based plans

    238,966          (114           (114

Stock-based compensation

        8,845              8,845   

Tax benefit from stock-based plans

        (1,258           (1,258

Comprehensive income (loss) (net of tax):

             

Net loss

          (212,659       (212,659     (212,659

Other comprehensive income (loss):

             

Changes in value of financial instruments designated as cash flow hedges

            267        267        267   

Changes in unrealized gain on investments

            92        92        92   

Foreign currency translation adjustment

            3,062        3,062        3,062   
           

 

 

   

Comprehensive loss

            $ (209,238  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Balance at December 31, 2009

    49,514,941      $ 113      $ 645,411      $ 28,769      $ 10,640        $ 684,933   

Net issuance under stock-based plans

    1,133,660          6,524              6,524   

Stock-based compensation

        10,604              10,604   

Tax expense from stock-based plans

        1,253              1,253   

Comprehensive income (net of tax):

             

Net income

          142,587          142,587        142,587   

Other comprehensive income:

             

Changes in value of financial instruments designated as cash flow hedges

            (2,600     (2,600     (2,600

Changes in unrealized gain on investments

            28        28        28   

Foreign currency translation adjustment

            3,710        3,710        3,710   
           

 

 

   

Comprehensive income

            $ 143,725     
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Balance at December 31, 2010

    50,648,601      $ 113      $ 663,792      $ 171,356      $ 11,778        $ 847,039   

Net issuance under stock-based plans

    1,929,135          28,546              28,546   

Stock-based compensation

        11,225              11,225   

Tax expense from stock-based plans

        5,019              5,019   

Stock repurchase

    (85,788       (1,163     (844         (2,007

Cash dividend

          (31,373         (31,373

Comprehensive income (net of tax):

             

Net income

          129,731          129,731        129,731   

Other comprehensive income:

             

Changes in value of financial instruments designated as cash flow hedges

            1,570        1,570        1,570   

Changes in unrealized gain on investments

            133        133        133   

Foreign currency translation adjustment

            129        129        129   
           

 

 

   

Comprehensive income

            $ 131,563     
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Balance at December 31, 2011

    52,491,948      $ 113      $ 707,419      $ 268,870      $ 13,610        $ 990,012   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

     

 

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.

 

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Table of Contents

MKS Instruments, Inc.

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

 

     Years Ended December 31,  
     2011     2010     2009  
     (in thousands)  

Cash flows from operating activities:

      

Net income (loss)

   $ 129,731      $ 142,587      $ (212,659

Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash provided by operating activities:

      

Depreciation and amortization

     12,980        13,823        18,759   

Stock-based compensation

     11,225        10,604        8,845   

Provision for excess and obsolete inventory

     14,857        13,230        20,335   

Impairment of goodwill

                   193,255   

Impairment of intangibles and other long-lived assets

                   15,242   

Gain on disposal of discontinued operations

            (4,432       

Deferred income taxes

     7,549        10,097        (3,143

Excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation

     (5,338     (2,112     (40

Other

     567        (560     1,003   

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

      

Trade accounts receivable

     17,923        (42,540     (9,935

Inventories

     (11,697     (52,467     (4,677

Income taxes

     (5,345     22,796        (19,939

Other current assets

     (7,674     296        2,511   

Accrued compensation and other liabilities

     2,904        40,928        (10,757

Accounts payable

     (11,646     11,220        6,103   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net cash provided by operating activities

     156,036        163,470        4,903   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cash flows from investing activities:

      

Purchases of investments

     (475,777     (410,551     (254,057

Maturities and sales of investments

     485,707        306,498        248,147   

Purchases of property, plant and equipment

     (15,567     (15,819     (4,179

Proceeds from sale of assets

     7        2,318        128   

Net proceeds from sale of discontinued operations

            15,582          

Other

     (448     (3,651     333   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net cash used in investing activities

     (6,078     (105,623     (9,628
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cash flows from financing activities:

      

Proceeds from short-term borrowings

     41,802        119,209        162,361   

Payments on short-term borrowings

     (39,915     (132,872     (166,847

Repurchases of common stock

     (2,007              

Net proceeds (payments) related to employee stock awards

     28,546        6,524        (114

Dividend payments to common stockholders

     (31,373              

Excess tax benefit from stock-based compensation

     5,338        2,112        40   

Other

                   (996
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities

     2,391        (5,027     (5,556
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents

     (1,909     (1,353     2,029   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents

     150,440        51,467        (8,252

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of year

     162,476        111,009        119,261   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents at end of year

   $ 312,916      $ 162,476      $ 111,009   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information:

      

Cash paid during the period for:

      

Interest

   $ 144      $ 78      $ 187   

Income taxes

   $ 52,561      $ 47,446      $ 10,038   

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.

 

44


Table of Contents

MKS INSTRUMENTS, INC.

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

1)

Business Description

MKS Instruments, Inc. (“MKS” or the “Company”) was founded in 1961 and is a global provider of instruments, subsystems and process control solutions that measure, control, power, monitor and analyze critical parameters of advanced manufacturing processes to improve process performance and productivity of advanced manufacturing processes. MKS is managed as one operating segment and we group our products into three product groups based upon the similarity of the product function, type of product and manufacturing processes. These three groups of products are: Instruments and Control Systems, Power and Reactive Gas Products and Vacuum Products. MKS’ products are derived from its core competencies in pressure measurement and control, materials delivery, gas composition analysis, control and information technology, power and reactive gas generation and vacuum technology.

 

2)

Basis of Presentation

The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of MKS Instruments, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

Use of Estimates and Reclassifications

The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”). The preparation of these financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. On an on-going basis, management evaluates its estimates and judgments, including those related to revenue recognition, stock-based compensation, inventory, intangible assets, goodwill, and other long-lived assets, acquisition expenses, income taxes and investments. Management bases its estimates and judgments on historical experience and on various other factors that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

During 2010, the Company divested two product lines, as their growth potential no longer met the Company’s long-term strategic objectives. The Company completed the sale of Ion Systems, Inc. (“Ion”) during the second quarter of 2010 and the sale of the assets of the Yield Dynamics, LLC (“YDI”) business during the third quarter of 2010. The results of operations of the two product lines have been classified as discontinued operations in the consolidated statements of operations for all periods presented. The assets and liabilities of these discontinued product lines have not been reclassified and segregated in the consolidated balance sheets or consolidated statements of cash flows due to their immaterial amounts. Refer to Note 17 for additional disclosure of the discontinued operations.

 

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Table of Contents

MKS INSTRUMENTS, INC.

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

For the year 2009, shown in the table below, the Company revised the amounts related to cash provided by operating activities and cash used in financing activities in its consolidated statements of cash flows to correct for immaterial errors. These corrections related to adjusting the excess tax benefit amounts associated with stock-based compensation.

 

 

     2009  

Net cash provided by operating activities:

  

As reported

   $ 7,368   

As adjusted

     4,903   
  

 

 

 

Change

   $ (2,465
  

 

 

 

Net cash used in financing activities:

  

As reported

   $ (8,021

As adjusted

     (5,556
  

 

 

 

Change

   $ 2,465   
  

 

 

 

 

3)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Revenue Recognition and Accounts Receivable Allowances

Revenue from product sales is recorded upon transfer of title and risk of loss to the customer provided that there is evidence of an arrangement, the sales price is fixed or determinable, and collection of the related receivable is reasonably assured. In most transactions, the Company has no obligations to customers after the date products are shipped other than pursuant to warranty obligations. In some instances, the Company provides installation, training, support and services to customers after the product has been shipped. For revenue arrangements with multiple deliverables, we allocate revenue to each element based upon their relative selling price using vendor-specific objective evidence (“VSOE”), or third-party evidence (“TPE”) or based upon the relative selling price using estimated prices if VSOE or TPE does not exist. We then recognize revenue on each deliverable in accordance with our policies for product and service revenue recognition. The Company provides for the estimated costs to fulfill customer warranty obligations upon the recognition of the related revenue. Shipping and handling fees, if any, billed to customers are recognized as revenue. The related shipping and handling costs are recognized in cost of sales. Accounts receivable allowances include sales returns and bad debt allowances. The Company monitors and tracks the amount of product returns and reduces revenue at the time of shipment for the estimated amount of such future returns, based on historical experience. The Company makes estimates evaluating its allowance for doubtful accounts. The Company continuously monitors collections and payments from its customers and maintains a provision for estimated credit losses based upon its historical experience and any specific customer collection issues that it has identified.

Research and Development

Research and development costs are expensed as incurred and consist mainly of compensation related expenses and project materials. The Company’s research and development efforts include numerous projects, which generally have a duration of 3 to 30 months. Acquired in-process research and development (“IPR&D”) expenses, which are capitalized at fair value as an intangible asset until the related project is completed, are then amortized over the estimated useful life of the product. Projects that are abandoned are immediately written off. In 2009 and prior years, IPR&D was expensed as incurred.

 

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Table of Contents

MKS INSTRUMENTS, INC.

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

Advertising Costs

Advertising costs are expensed as incurred and were immaterial in 2011, 2010 and 2009.

Stock-Based Compensation

The accounting for share-based compensation expense requires the measurement and recognition of compensation expense for all share-based payment awards made to employees and directors based on estimated fair values. For restricted stock units (“RSUs”), the fair value is the fair value on the date of grant. The Company has estimated the fair value of share-based options on the date of grant using the Black Scholes pricing model, which is affected by the Company’s stock price as well as assumptions regarding a number of complex and subjective variables. These variables include the Company’s expected stock price volatility over the term of the awards, expected life, risk free interest rate and expected dividends. The Company is also required to estimate forfeitures at the time of grant and revise those estimates in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates.

Management determined that blended volatility, a combination of historical and implied volatility, is more reflective of market conditions and a better indicator of expected volatility than historical or implied volatility alone. The assumptions used in calculating the fair value of share-based payment awards represent management’s best estimates, but these estimates involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management judgment. As a result, if factors change and the Company uses different assumptions, its stock-based compensation expense could be materially different in the future.

Other Comprehensive Income

For foreign subsidiaries where the functional currency is the local currency, assets and liabilities are translated into U.S. dollars at the current exchange rate on the balance sheet date. Revenue and expenses are translated at average rates of exchange prevailing during the year. Translation adjustments resulting from this process are recorded to Other Comprehensive Income (“OCI”).

Unrealized gains and losses on securities classified as available-for-sale are included in accumulated other comprehensive income in consolidated stockholders’ equity.

For derivative instruments designated as cash-flow hedges, the effective portion of the derivative’s gain (loss) is initially reported as a component of OCI and is subsequently recognized in earnings when the hedged exposure is recognized in earnings.

Net Income Per Share

Basic earnings per share is based on the weighted average number of common shares outstanding, and diluted earnings per share is based on the weighted average number of common shares outstanding and all potential dilutive common equivalent shares outstanding. The dilutive effect of options is determined under the treasury stock method using the average market price for the period. Common equivalent shares are included in the per share calculations when the effect of their inclusion would be dilutive.

Cash and Cash Equivalents and Investments

All highly liquid investments with a maturity date of three months or less at the date of purchase are considered to be cash equivalents. The appropriate classification of investments in securities is determined at the

 

47


Table of Contents

MKS INSTRUMENTS, INC.

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

time of purchase. Debt securities that the Company does not have the intent and ability to hold to maturity are classified as “available-for-sale” and are carried at fair value. Mutual funds that are bought and held principally for the purpose of selling them in the near term are classified as “trading” and are carried at fair value.

The Company reviews its investment portfolio on a monthly basis to identify and evaluate individual investments that have indications of possible impairment. The factors considered in determining whether a loss is other-than-temporary include: the length of time and extent to which fair market value has been below the cost basis, the financial condition and near-term prospects of the issuer, credit quality, and the Company’s ability to hold the investment for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in fair value.

Concentrations of Credit Risk

The Company’s significant concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash and cash equivalents, investments, forward exchange contracts and trade accounts receivable. The Company maintains cash and cash equivalents with financial institutions including some banks with which it had borrowings. The Company maintains investments primarily in U.S. Treasury and government agency securities and corporate debt securities. The Company enters into forward currency contracts with high credit-quality financial institutions in order to minimize credit risk exposure. The Company’s customers are primarily concentrated in the semiconductor industry, and a limited number of customers account for a significant portion of the Company’s revenues. The Company regularly monitors the creditworthiness of its customers and believes it has adequately provided for potential credit loss exposures. Credit is extended for all customers based primarily on financial condition and collateral is not required.

The Company had one customer comprising 14%, 16% and 13% of net sales for 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively. During the years 2011, 2010 and 2009, the Company estimated that approximately 61%, 64% and 52% of its net sales, respectively, were to semiconductor capital equipment manufacturers and semiconductor device manufacturers. There were no customers comprising 10% or more of the Company’s accounts receivable balance as of December 31, 2011.

Inventories

The Company values its inventory at the lower of cost (first-in, first-out method) or market. The Company regularly reviews inventory quantities on hand and records a provision to write-down excess and obsolete inventory to its estimated net realizable value, if less than cost, based primarily on its estimated forecast of product demand.

Property, Plant and Equipment

Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost. Equipment acquired under capital leases is recorded at the present value of the minimum lease payments required during the lease period. Expenditures for major renewals and betterments that extend the useful lives of property, plant and equipment are capitalized. Expenditures for maintenance and repairs are charged to expense as incurred. When assets are sold or otherwise disposed of, the cost and related accumulated depreciation are eliminated from the accounts and any resulting gain or loss is recognized in earnings.

Depreciation is provided on the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of twenty to thirty-one and one-half years for buildings and three to seven years for machinery and equipment, furniture and fixtures and office equipment, which includes enterprise resource planning software. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the lease term or the estimated useful life of the leased asset.

 

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Table of Contents

MKS INSTRUMENTS, INC.

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

Intangible Assets

Intangible assets resulting from the acquisitions of entities are estimated by management based on the fair value of assets acquired. These include acquired customer lists, technology, patents, trade names, covenants not to compete and IPR&D. Intangible assets are amortized from two to eight years on a straight-line basis which represents the estimated periods of benefit and the expected pattern of consumption. During 2009, the Company recorded impairments of indefinite-lived intangible assets of $11,699. These impairment charges are classified in discontinued operations in the consolidated statements of operations as the intangible assets relate to the two discontinued product lines.

Goodwill

Goodwill is the amount by which the cost of acquired net assets exceeded the fair value of those net assets on the date of acquisition. The Company allocates goodwill to reporting units at the time of acquisition or when there is a change in the reporting structure and bases that allocation on which reporting units will benefit from the acquired assets and liabilities. Reporting units are defined as operating segments or one level below an operating segment, referred to as a component. The Company has determined that its reporting units are components of its one operating segment. The Company assesses goodwill for impairment on an annual basis as of October 31 or more frequently when events and circumstances occur indicating that the recorded goodwill may be impaired. If the book value of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, the implied fair value of goodwill is compared with the carrying amount of goodwill. If the carrying amount of goodwill exceeds the implied fair value, an impairment loss is recorded equal to that excess. During 2009, the Company recorded a goodwill impairment charge of $193,254. In 2010, the Company reclassified $53,840 of the goodwill impairment charge to discontinued operations as it related to the two discontinued product lines.

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

The Company evaluates the recoverability of its long-lived assets whenever events and changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be fully recoverable. This periodic review may result in an adjustment of estimated depreciable lives or asset impairment. When indicators of impairment are present, the carrying values of the asset are evaluated in relation to their operating performance and future undiscounted cash flows of the underlying business. If the future undiscounted cash flows are less than their book value, impairment exists. The impairment is measured as the difference between the book value and the fair value of the underlying asset. Fair values are based on estimates of market prices and assumptions concerning the amount and timing of estimated future cash flows and assumed discount rates, reflecting varying degrees of perceived risk. During 2009, the Company recorded an impairment charge of $3,544 resulting from the write-down of the value of a building to its estimated fair value.

Foreign Exchange

The functional currency of the majority of the Company’s foreign subsidiaries is the applicable local currency. For those subsidiaries, assets and liabilities are translated to U.S. dollars at year-end exchange rates. Income and expense accounts are translated at the average exchange rates prevailing during the year. The resulting translation adjustments are included in accumulated other comprehensive income in consolidated stockholders’ equity. Foreign exchange transaction gains and losses, which arise from transaction activity, are reflected in selling, general and administrative expenses in the statement of operations.

 

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Table of Contents

MKS INSTRUMENTS, INC.

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

Income Taxes

The Company records income taxes using the asset and liability method. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective income tax bases, and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. On a quarterly basis, the Company evaluates both the positive and negative evidence that affects the realizability of net deferred tax assets and assesses the need for a valuation allowance. The future benefit to be derived from its deferred tax assets is dependent upon its ability to generate sufficient future taxable income to realize the assets. The Company records a valuation allowance to reduce its net deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. To the extent the Company establishes a valuation allowance an expense will be recorded as a component of the provision for income taxes on the statement of operations. As of December 31, 2009, the Company had a valuation allowance of $5,201 primarily related to state tax credit carryforwards. During 2010, the Company increased the valuation allowance by $20,066 primarily related to capital losses incurred from its divested business operations, as the Company determined it is more likely than not that this tax attribute will not be realized. As a result, the valuation allowance was $25,267 at December 31, 2010. During 2011, the Company increased its valuation allowance by $1,208 primarily related to capital losses incurred from its foreign affiliates as management determined it is more likely than not that the deferred tax assets related to these attributes will not be realized. As a result, the valuation allowance is $26,475 at December 31, 2011.

Accounting for income taxes requires a two-step approach to recognize and measure uncertain tax positions. The first step is to evaluate the tax position for recognition by determining if, based on the technical merits, it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained upon audit, including resolutions of related appeals or litigation processes, if any. The second step is to measure the tax benefit as the largest amount that is more than 50% likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement. The Company reevaluates these uncertain tax positions on a quarterly basis. This evaluation is based on factors including, but not limited to, changes in facts or circumstances, changes in tax law, effectively settled issues under audit and new audit activity. Any change in these factors could result in the recognition of a tax benefit or an additional charge to the tax provision.

 

4)

Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

In September 2011, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued an Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) which simplifies how companies test goodwill for impairment. Under the amendments, an entity has the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If, after assessing the totality of events or circumstances, an entity determines it is not more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, then performing the two-step impairment test is unnecessary. However, if an entity concludes otherwise, then it is required to perform the first step of the two-step impairment test by calculating the fair value of the reporting unit and comparing the fair value with the carrying amount of the reporting unit, as described in the goodwill accounting standard. The amendments are effective for annual and interim goodwill impairment tests performed for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2011. Early adoption is permitted. The Company adopted this new ASU in the fourth quarter of 2011. The new ASU did not have a material effect on its consolidated financial statements.

In June 2011, the FASB issued an ASU which eliminates the option to present the components of other comprehensive income as part of the statement of equity and requires an entity to present the total of comprehensive income, the components of net income, and the components of other comprehensive income either in a single continuous statement of comprehensive income or in two separate but consecutive

 

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MKS INSTRUMENTS, INC.

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

statements. The amendments are effective retrospectively for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2011. The ASU requires changes in presentation only and the Company does not expect it will have a material effect on its consolidated financial statements.

In May 2011, the FASB issued an ASU which applies to all reporting entities that are required or permitted to measure or disclose the fair value of an asset, a liability, or an instrument classified in a reporting entity’s shareholders’ equity in the financial statements. The amendments do not extend the use of fair value accounting, but provide guidance on how it should be applied where its use is already required or permitted by other standards within U.S. GAAP. The amendments change the wording used to describe many requirements in U.S. GAAP for measuring fair value and for disclosing information about fair value measurements. Additionally, the ASU clarifies the FASB’s intent about the application of existing fair value measurements. The amendments in this ASU are to be applied prospectively. For public entities, the amendments are effective during interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2011. Early application by public entities is not permitted. The Company does not expect the new ASU to have a material effect on its consolidated financial statements.

 

5)

Investments

The fair value of short-term investments with maturities or estimated lives of less than one year consists of the following:

 

 

     Years Ended
December 31,
 
     2011      2010  

Available-for-sale investments:

     

Time deposits

   $ 37       $ 15,716   

Bankers acceptance drafts

     962           

U.S. treasury obligations

     29,404         76,542   

U.S. agency obligations

     221,565         176,708   

Mutual funds(1)

             491   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 
     251,968         269,457   

Trading investments:

     

Mutual funds(1)

     635           
  

 

 

    

 

 

 
   $ 252,603       $ 269,457   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(1)

During the third quarter of 2011, the Company re-classified the mutual funds from short-term available-for-sale investments to trading investments as it was management’s intention that these investments would be actively traded. The mutual funds are associated with the Company’s supplemental defined contribution retirement obligations.

The fair value of long-term available-for-sale investments with maturities or estimated lives of more than one year consists of the following:

 

 

     Years Ended
December 31,
 
     2011      2010  

U.S. agency obligations

   $ 7,873       $   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

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MKS INSTRUMENTS, INC.

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

The following table shows the gross unrealized gains and (losses) aggregated by investment category for short-term and long-term available-for-sale investments:

 

 

     Cost      Gross
Unrealized
Gains
     Gross
Unrealized
(Losses)
    Estimated
Fair Value
 

As of December 31, 2011:

          

Short-term investments:

          

Available-for-sale investments:

          

Time deposits

   $ 37       $       $      $ 37   

Bankers acceptance drafts

     962                        962   

U.S. treasury obligations

     29,393         11                29,404   

U.S. agency obligations

     221,516         56         (7     221,565   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 
   $ 251,908       $ 67       $ (7   $ 251,968   

Long-term investments:

          

U.S. agency obligations

   $ 7,876       $       $ (3   $ 7,873   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

     Cost      Gross
Unrealized
Gains
     Gross
Unrealized
(Losses)
    Estimated
Fair Value
 

As of December 31, 2010:

          

Short-term investments:

          

Available-for-sale investments:

          

Time deposits

   $ 15,716       $       $      $ 15,716   

U.S. treasury obligations

     76,538         4                76,542   

U.S. agency obligations

     176,702         38         (32     176,708   

Mutual funds

     659                 (168     491   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 
   $ 269,615       $ 42       $ (200   $ 269,457   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Interest income is accrued as earned. Dividend income is recognized as income on the date the stock trades “ex-dividend.” The cost of marketable securities sold is determined by the specific identification method and realized gains or losses are reflected in income and were not material in 2011, 2010 and 2009.

The unrealized gains and losses for trading investments were immaterial in 2011.

 

6)

Fair Value Measurements

In accordance with the provisions of fair value accounting, a fair value measurement assumes that the transaction to sell an asset or transfer a liability occurs in the principal market for the asset or liability or, in the absence of a principal market, the most advantageous market for the asset or liability and defines fair value based upon an exit price model.

 

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MKS INSTRUMENTS, INC.

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

The fair value measurement guidance establishes a fair value hierarchy which requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. The guidance describes three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value:

 

Level 1

   Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities as of the reporting date. Active markets are those in which transactions for the asset or liability occur in sufficient frequency and volume to provide pricing information on an ongoing basis.

Level 2

   Observable inputs other than Level 1 prices, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities; quoted prices in markets that are not active; or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities. Level 2 assets and liabilities include debt securities with quoted prices that are traded less frequently than exchange-traded instruments or securities or derivative contracts that are valued using a pricing model with inputs that are observable in the market or can be derived principally from or corroborated by observable market data.

Level 3

   Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities. Level 3 assets and liabilities include financial instruments whose value is determined using pricing models, discounted cash flow methodologies, or similar techniques, as well as instruments for which the determination of fair value requires significant management judgment or estimation.

In certain cases, the inputs used to measure fair value may fall into different levels of the fair value hierarchy. In such cases, we categorize such assets and liabilities based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement in its entirety. Our assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement in its entirety requires judgment and considers factors specific to the asset.

 

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MKS INSTRUMENTS, INC.

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

Assets and liabilities of the Company measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of December 31, 2011, are summarized as follows:

 

 

            Fair Value Measurements at Reporting Date Using  

Description

   December 31,
2011
     Quoted Prices in
Active  Markets for
Identical Assets
(Level 1)
     Significant Other
Observable
Inputs

(Level 2)
     Significant
Unobservable
Inputs

(Level 3)
 

Assets:

           

Cash equivalents:
Money market funds

   $ 137,976       $ 137,976       $       $   

Trading securities:

           

Mutual funds

     635         635                   

Available-for-sale securities:

           

Bankers acceptance drafts

     962                 962           

U.S. treasury obligations

     29,404                 29,404           

U.S. agency obligations

     229,438         147,546         81,892           

Derivatives — currency forward contracts

     531                 531           
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total assets

   $ 398,946       $ 286,157       $ 112,789       $   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Liabilities:

           

Derivatives — currency forward contracts

   $ 1,054       $       $ 1,054       $   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Reported as follows:

           

Assets:

           

Cash and cash equivalents(1)

   $ 137,976       $ 137,976       $       $   

Short-term investments(2)

     252,566         140,308         112,258           

Other current assets

     531                 531           
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
   $ 391,073       $ 278,284       $ 112,789       $   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Long-term investments

   $ 7,873       $ 7,873       $       $   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Liabilities:

           

Other current liabilities

   $ 1,054       $       $ 1,054       $   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(1)

The cash and cash equivalent amounts presented in the table above do not include cash of $146,035 and non-negotiable time deposits of $28,905 as of December 31, 2011.

 

(2)

The short-term investments presented in the table above do not include non-negotiable time deposits of $37 as of December 31, 2011.

 

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MKS INSTRUMENTS, INC.

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

Assets and liabilities of the Company measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of December 31, 2010, are summarized as follows:

 

 

            Fair Value Measurements at Reporting Date Using  

Description

   December 31,
2010
     Quoted Prices in
Active  Markets for
Identical Assets
(Level 1)
     Significant Other
Observable
Inputs

(Level 2)
     Significant
Unobservable
Inputs

(Level 3)
 

Assets:

           

Cash equivalents:

           

Money market funds

   $ 7,032       $ 7,032       $       $   

Bankers acceptance drafts

     2,838                 2,838           

U.S. treasury obligations

     29,996         29,996                   

U.S. agency obligations

     14,795         14,795                   

Available-for-sale securities:

           

U.S. treasury obligations

     76,543         76,543                   

U.S. agency obligations

     176,707         176,707                   

Mutual funds

     491         491                   

Derivatives — currency forward contracts

     369                 369           
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total assets

   $ 308,771       $ 305,564       $ 3,207       $   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Liabilities:

           

Derivatives — currency forward contracts

   $ 3,463       $       $ 3,463       $   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Reported as follows:

           

Assets:

           

Cash and cash equivalents(1)

   $ 54,661       $ 51,823       $ 2,838       $   

Short-term investments(2)

     253,741         253,741                   

Other current assets

     369                 369           
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
   $ 308,771       $ 305,564       $ 3,207       $   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Liabilities:

           

Other current liabilities

   $ 3,463       $       $ 3,463       $   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(1)

The cash and cash equivalent amounts presented in the table above, do not include cash of $107,815 as of December 31, 2010.

 

(2)

The short-term investment amounts presented in the table above do not include $15,716 as of December 31, 2010. These amounts represent non-negotiable time deposits which are not subject to the fair value disclosure requirements.

Money Market Funds

Money market funds are cash and cash equivalents and are classified within Level 1 of the fair value hierarchy.

 

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MKS INSTRUMENTS, INC.

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

Trading Mutual Fund Investments

As of December 31, 2011, trading investments consisted of certain U.S. and international equity mutual funds and government agency fixed income mutual funds. In 2011, management changed the classification of the investments from available-for-sale to trading investments. These investments were classified as available-for-sale at December 31, 2010. These investments are classified within Level 1 of the fair value hierarchy.

Available-For-Sale Investments

As of December 31, 2011 and December 31, 2010, available-for-sale investments consisted of time deposits and drafts denominated in the Euro currency, U.S. treasury obligations and U.S. agency obligations. U.S. agency obligations include certain corporate obligations issued under the government’s Term Loan Guarantee Program which removes any credit risk associated with the corporate issuing entity, as they become obligations of the U.S. government should the corporate issuer be unable to honor its obligations.

The Company measures its debt and equity investments at fair value. The Company’s available-for-sale investments are classified within Level 1 and Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy.

Derivatives

As a result of the Company’s global operating activities, the Company is exposed to market risks from changes in foreign currency exchange rates, which may adversely affect its operating results and financial position. When deemed appropriate, the Company minimizes its risks from foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations through the use of derivative financial instruments. The principal market in which the Company executes its foreign currency contracts is the institutional market in an over-the-counter environment with a relatively high level of price transparency. The market participants usually are large commercial banks. The forward foreign currency exchange contracts are valued using broker quotations, or market transactions and are classified within Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy.

 

7)

Derivatives

The Company enters into derivative instruments for risk management purposes only, including derivatives designated as hedging instruments and those utilized as economic hedges. The Company operates internationally and, in the normal course of business, is exposed to fluctuations in interest rates and foreign exchange rates. These fluctuations can increase the costs of financing, investing and operating the business. The Company has used derivative instruments, such as forward contracts, to manage certain foreign currency exposure.

By nature, all financial instruments involve market and credit risks. The Company enters into derivative instruments with major investment grade financial institutions and no collateral is required. The Company has policies to monitor the credit risk of these counterparties. While there can be no assurance, the Company does not anticipate any material non-performance by any of these counterparties.

The Company hedges a portion of its forecasted foreign currency denominated intercompany sales of inventory, over a maximum period of eighteen months, using forward foreign exchange contracts accounted for as cash-flow hedges related to Japanese, South Korean, British and European currencies. To the extent these derivatives are effective in off-setting the variability of the hedged cash flows, and otherwise meet the hedge accounting criteria, changes in the derivatives’ fair value are not included in current earnings but are included in

 

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MKS INSTRUMENTS, INC.

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

OCI in stockholders’ equity. These changes in fair value will subsequently be reclassified into earnings, as applicable, when the forecasted transaction occurs. To the extent that a previously designated hedging transaction is no longer an effective hedge, any ineffectiveness measured in the hedging relationship is recorded currently in earnings in the period it occurs. The cash flows resulting from forward exchange contracts are classified in the consolidated statements of cash flows as part of cash flows from operating activities. The Company does not enter into derivative instruments for trading or speculative purposes.

To the extent the hedge accounting criteria is not met, the related foreign currency forward contracts are considered as economic hedges and changes in the fair value of these contracts are recorded immediately in earnings in the period in which they occur. These include hedges that are used to reduce exchange rate risks arising from the change in fair value of certain foreign currency denominated assets and liabilities (i.e., payables, receivables) and other economic hedges where the hedge accounting criteria were not met.

As of December 31, 2011 and 2010, the Company had outstanding forward foreign exchange contracts with gross notional values of $36,119 and $87,666, respectively. The following tables provide a summary of the primary net hedging positions and corresponding fair values held as of December 31, 2011 and 2010:

 

 

     December 31, 2011  

Currency Hedged (Buy/Sell)

   Gross Notional
Value
     Fair Value(1)  

U.S. Dollar/Japanese Yen

   $ 18,676       $ (961

U.S. Dollar/South Korean Won

     10,799         60   

U.S. Dollar/Euro

     3,869         288   

U.S. Dollar/U.K. Pound Sterling

     2,775         90   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

   $ 36,119       $ (523
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

     December 31, 2010  

Currency Hedged (Buy/Sell)

   Gross Notional
Value
     Fair Value(1)  

U.S. Dollar/Japanese Yen

   $ 50,104       $ (2,876

U.S. Dollar/South Korean Won

     27,574         (563

U.S. Dollar/Euro

     6,934         305   

U.S. Dollar/U.K. Pound Sterling

     3,054         40   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

   $ 87,666       $ (3,094
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(1)

Represents the net receivable (payable) amount included in the consolidated balance sheet.

The following table provides a summary of the fair value amounts of the Company’s derivative instruments:

 

 

     Years Ended
December 31,
 

Derivatives Designated as Hedging Instruments

   2011     2010  

Derivative assets:

    

Forward exchange contracts

   $ 531      $ 369   

Derivative liabilities:

    

Forward exchange contracts

     (1,054     (3,463
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total net derivative asset (liability) designated as hedging instruments(1)

   $ (523   $ (3,094
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

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MKS INSTRUMENTS, INC.

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

 

The derivative asset of $531 and derivative liability of $1,054 are classified in other current assets and other current liabilities, respectively, in the consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2011. The derivative asset of $369 and derivative liability of $3,463 are classified in other current assets and other current liabilities, respectively, in the consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2010.

The following table provides a summary of the gains (losses) on derivatives designated as hedging instruments:

 

 

      Years Ended December 31,  

Derivatives Designated as Cash Flow Hedging Relationships

   2011     2010     2009  

Forward exchange contracts:

      

Net gain (loss) recognized in OCI(1)

   $ 4,311      $ (3,346   $ 1,290   

Net gain (loss) reclassified from accumulated OCI into income(2)

   $ (4,021     (957     1,062   

Net gain recognized in income(3)

                   313   

 

(1)

Net change in the fair value of the effective portion classified in OCI.

 

(2)

Effective portion classified as selling, general and administrative in 2011 and as cost of products in 2010 and 2009, respectively.

 

(3)

Ineffective portion amount excluded from effectiveness testing, classified in selling, general and administrative.

The following table provides a summary of gains on derivatives not designated as hedging instruments:

 

 

      Years Ended December 31,  

Derivatives Not Designated as Hedging Instruments

   2011      2010      2009  

Forward exchange contracts:

        

Net gain recognized in income(1)

   $       $       $ 9   

 

(1)

Classified in selling, general and administrative.

 

8) Inventories

Inventories consist of the following:

 

 

     Years Ended
December 31,
 
     2011      2010  

Raw material

   $ 78,501       $ 82,012   

Work in process

     21,298         21,891   

Finished goods

     53,833         52,526   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 
   $ 153,632       $ 156,429   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Inventory related excess and obsolete charges of $14,857, $13,230 and $20,335 were recorded in cost of products in the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively.

 

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MKS INSTRUMENTS, INC.

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

9) Property, Plant and Equipment

Property, plant and equipment consist of the following:

 

 

     Years Ended
December 31,
 
     2011      2010  

Land

   $ 8,119       $ 8,131   

Buildings

     64,962         63,633   

Machinery and equipment

     107,304         97,888   

Furniture and fixtures, office equipment and software

     48,516         50,642   

Leasehold improvements

     18,617         18,385   

Construction in progress

     7,075         3,968   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 
     254,593         242,647   

Less: accumulated depreciation and amortization

     182,106         173,671   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 
   $ 72,487       $ 68,976   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Depreciation and amortization of property, plant and equipment totaled $11,965, $12,298 and $14,352 for the years 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively. In 2010, the Company reclassified $85 and $264 of depreciation and amortization of property, plant and equipment to discontinued operations for the years 2010 and 2009, respectively.

 

10) Goodwill, Intangible Assets and Other Long-Lived Assets

Goodwill

The Company’s methodology for allocating the purchase price relating to purchase acquisitions is determined through established and generally accepted valuation techniques. Goodwill is measured as the excess of the cost of the acquisition over the sum of the amounts assigned to tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired less liabilities assumed. The Company assigns assets acquired (including goodwill) and liabilities assumed to one or more reporting units as of the date of acquisition. Typically, acquisitions relate to a single reporting unit and thus do not require the allocation of goodwill to multiple reporting units. If the products obtained in an acquisition are assigned to multiple reporting units, the goodwill is distributed to the respective reporting units as part of the purchase price allocation process.

Goodwill and purchased intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are not amortized, but are reviewed for impairment annually during the fourth quarter of each fiscal year and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset may not be recoverable. The process of evaluating the potential impairment of goodwill and intangible assets requires significant judgment, especially in emerging markets. The Company regularly monitors current business conditions and other factors including, but not limited to, adverse industry or economic trends, restructuring actions and lower projections of profitability that may impact future operating results.

In 2011, the Company adopted authoritative guidance that allows it to utilize a qualitative approach to test goodwill for impairment. This authoritative guidance permitted the Company to first perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of its reporting units is less than their carrying value. For the reporting units that did not experience any significant adverse changes in their business or reporting structures or any other adverse changes, and the reporting unit’s fair value substantially exceeded its amount from the prior year assessment, then the Company performed the qualitative Step 0 assessment. In performing the qualitative Step 0 assessment, the Company considered certain events and

 

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NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

circumstances specific to the reporting unit and to the entity as a whole, such as macroeconomic conditions, industry and market considerations, overall financial performance and cost factors when evaluating whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. For the remaining reporting units that did not meet the criteria, the Company performed the two-step goodwill impairment test. Under the two-step goodwill impairment test the Company compares the fair value of each reporting unit to its respective carrying amount, including goodwill. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying amount, goodwill of the reporting unit is not considered impaired. If the reporting unit’s carrying amount exceeds the fair value, the second step of the goodwill impairment test must be completed to measure the amount of the impairment loss, if any. The second step compares the implied fair value of goodwill with the carrying value of goodwill. The implied fair value is determined by allocating the fair value of the reporting unit to all of the assets and liabilities of that unit, the excess of the fair value over amounts assigned to its assets and liabilities is the implied fair value of goodwill. The implied fair value of goodwill determined in this step is compared to the carrying value of goodwill. If the implied fair value of goodwill is less than the carrying value of goodwill, an impairment loss is recognized equal to the difference.

We determined the fair value of our reporting units using a DCF analysis. Determining fair value requires the exercise of significant judgment, including judgments about appropriate discount rates, perpetual growth rates, and the amount and timing of expected future cash flows. Discount rates are based on a weighted average cost of capital (“WACC”), which represents the average rate a business must pay its providers of debt and equity. The WACC used to test goodwill was derived from a group of comparable companies. The cash flows employed in the DCF analysis were derived from internal earnings and forecasts and external market forecasts.

As of October 31, 2011, the Company performed its annual impairment assessment of goodwill and determined that it is more likely than not that the fair values of the reporting units exceed their carrying amount.

During the second quarter of 2009, the Company determined an interim assessment for impairment should be conducted for its goodwill due to various factors, including market and economic conditions that contributed to a decline in the Company’s forecasted business levels, and the excess of the Company’s consolidated net assets over its market capitalization for a sustained period of time. During this interim assessment, the Company determined that for certain reporting units, the carrying amount of their net assets exceeded their respective fair values, indicating that a potential impairment existed. After completing the second step of the goodwill impairment test, the Company recorded a goodwill impairment charge in the second quarter of 2009 of $193,254. In 2010, the Company reclassified $53,840 of the goodwill impairment charge to discontinued operations for 2009 as it related to the two discontinued product lines.

The changes in the carrying amount of goodwill and accumulated impairment losses were as follows:

 

 

     2011      2010  
     Gross
Carrying
Amount
     Accumulated
Impairment
Loss
    Net      Gross
Carrying
Amount
    Accumulated
Impairment
Loss
    Net  

Beginning balance at January 1

   $ 279,434       $ (139,414   $ 140,020       $ 337,765      $ (193,254   $ 144,511   

Acquired goodwill(1)(2)

     64                64         2,292               2,292   

Sale of discontinued operations(3)

                            (60,623     53,840        (6,783
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Ending balance at December 31

   $ 279,498       $ (139,414   $ 140,084       $ 279,434      $ (139,414   $ 140,020   
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(1)

In September 2011, the Company purchased a product line from GE Osmonics, Inc. for $458. The Company recorded $315 of intangible assets and $64 of goodwill in connection with the acquisition.

 

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NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

(2)

In November 2010, the Company purchased a technology company for $2,447 to enhance its product portfolio. The Company recorded $2,292 of goodwill in connection with the acquisition.

 

(3)

In May 2010, the Company sold its Ion business and in August 2010 it sold the assets of its YDI business and as a result charged the related goodwill to the gain on sale of discontinued operations.

Intangible Assets

The Company is required to test certain long-lived assets when indicators of impairment are present. For the purposes of the impairment test, long-lived assets are grouped with other assets and liabilities at the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets and liabilities. Due to various factors, including market and economic conditions that contributed to a decline in the Company’s forecasted business levels, and the excess of the Company’s consolidated net assets over market capitalization for a sustained period of time, the Company concluded an interim assessment for impairment should be conducted for its intangible assets as of April 30, 2009. The Company tested the long-lived assets in question for recoverability by comparing the sum of the undiscounted cash flows attributable to each respective asset group to their carrying amounts, and determined that the carrying amounts were not recoverable. Management then evaluated the fair values of each long-lived asset of the potentially impaired long-lived asset group to determine the amount of the impairment, if any. The fair value of each intangible asset was based primarily on an income approach, which is a present value technique used to measure the fair value of future cash flows produced by the asset. The Company estimated future cash flows over the remaining useful life of each intangible asset. As a result of this analysis, the Company determined that certain of its intangible assets related to completed technology, customer relationships, and patents and trademarks had carrying values that exceeded their estimated fair values. As a result, an impairment charge of $11,699 was recorded in the second quarter of 2009. This impairment charge is classified in discontinued operations in the consolidated statement of operations as the intangible assets relate to the two discontinued product lines.

Components of the Company’s acquired intangible assets are comprised of the following:

 

As of December 31, 2011:

     Gross        Accumulated
Amortization
     Net  

Completed technology

     $ 76,829         $ (76,829    $   

Customer relationships

       9,190           (8,393      797   

Patents, trademarks, trade names and other

       24,703           (24,457      246   
    

 

 

      

 

 

    

 

 

 
     $ 110,722         $ (109,679    $ 1,043   
    

 

 

      

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

As of December 31, 2010:

     Gross(1)      Accumulated
Amortization(1)
    Net  

Completed technology

     $ 76,829       $ (76,230   $ 599   

Customer relationships

       8,940         (8,083     857   

Patents, trademarks, trade names and other

       24,638         (24,351     287   
    

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 
     $ 110,407       $ (108,664   $ 1,743   
    

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(1)

Excludes $18,299 and $16,603 from gross and accumulated amortization, respectively, as a result of the Company’s sale of its Ion business and assets of its YDI business.

Aggregate amortization expense related to acquired intangibles for the years 2011, 2010 and 2009 were $1,015, $1,525 and $4,407, respectively. In 2010, the Company reclassified $242 and $1,645 of amortization

 

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MKS INSTRUMENTS, INC.

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

expense to discontinued operations for the years 2010 and 2009, respectively. Estimated amortization expense for each of the five remaining fiscal years and thereafter is as follows:

 

 

Year

   Amount  

2012

   $ 436   

2013

     423   

2014

     52   

2015

     36   

2016

     36   

Thereafter

     60   

Long-Lived Assets

The Company is required to test long-lived assets, which exclude goodwill and intangible assets that are not amortized, when indicators of impairment are present. For purposes of this test, long-lived assets are grouped with other assets and liabilities at the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets and liabilities. When we determine that indicators of potential impairment exist, the next step of the impairment test requires that the potentially impaired long-lived asset group is tested for recoverability. The test for recoverability compares the undiscounted future cash flows of the long-lived asset group to its carrying value. If the carrying values of the long-lived asset group exceed the future cash flows, the assets are considered to be potentially impaired. The next step in the impairment process is to determine the fair value of the individual net assets within the long-lived asset group. If the aggregate fair values of the individual net assets of the group are less than the carrying values, an impairment charge is recorded equal to the excess of the aggregate carrying value of the group over the aggregate fair value. The loss is allocated to each asset within the group based on their relative carrying values, with no asset reduced below its fair value.

During 2009, a long-lived asset held with a carrying amount of $4,841 was written down to its fair value of $1,297, resulting in a loss of $3,544, which was included in earnings. During 2010, the Company sold this long-lived asset for its net realizable value of approximately $1,297. In addition, the Company sold a vacated facility during 2010 and received net proceeds of $785 and recorded a net gain on the sale of $682. There were no long-lived asset impairment charges in 2011.

 

11) Other Assets

 

 

     Years Ended
December 31,
 
     2011      2010  

Other Current Assets:

     

Income tax receivable

   $ 12,005       $   

Prepaid income taxes

     8,540         6,579   

Other

     13,693         5,998   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total other current assets

   $ 34,238       $ 12,577   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Other Assets:

     

Deferred tax assets, net

   $ 10,274       $ 15,076   

Other

     1,992         3,703   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total other assets

   $ 12,266       $ 18,779   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

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MKS INSTRUMENTS, INC.

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

12) Other Liabilities

 

 

     Years Ended
December 31,
 
     2011      2010  

Other Current Liabilities:

     

Product warranties

   $ 8,315       $ 9,865   

Deferred revenue

     11,553         4,970   

Non-income taxes

     8,319         5,715   

Other

     12,137         17,418   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total other current liabilities

   $ 40,324       $ 37,968   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Other Liabilities:

     

Long-term income tax payable

   $ 16,084       $ 13,688   

Accrued compensation

     15,174         11,064   

Other

     953         936   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total other liabilities

   $ 32,211       $ 25,688   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

13) Product Warranties

The Company provides for the estimated costs to fulfill customer warranty obligations upon the recognition of the related revenue. While the Company engages in extensive product quality programs and processes, including actively monitoring and evaluating the quality of its component suppliers, the Company’s warranty obligation is affected by shipment volume, product failure rates, utilization levels, material usage and supplier warranties on parts delivered to the Company. Should actual product failure rates, utilization levels, material usage, or supplier warranties on parts differ from the Company’s estimates, revisions to the estimated warranty liability would be required. The product warranty liability is included in other current liabilities in the consolidated balance sheets.

Product warranty activities were as follows:

 

 

     Years Ended
December 31,
 
     2011     2010  

Beginning balance

   $ 9,865      $ 6,560   

Provisions for product warranties

     5,766        9,518   

Direct charges to warranty liability

     (7,316     (6,213
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Ending balance

   $ 8,315      $ 9,865   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

14) Restructuring

In the first quarter of 2009, the Company initiated a restructuring plan due to the global financial crisis and its impact on the Company’s semiconductor equipment OEM customers and the other markets it serves. The plan included a reduction in the Company’s worldwide headcount of approximately 630 people, which represented approximately 24% of its global workforce.

 

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MKS INSTRUMENTS, INC.

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

The Company recorded restructuring charges of $5,812 during 2009. For the twelve months ended December 31, 2009, restructuring charges of $296 were classified in discontinued operations in the consolidated statement of operations. The restructuring charges were primarily for severance and other charges associated with the reductions in workforce. The restructuring plan was completed in the first quarter of 2010.

 

15) Debt

Credit Agreements and Short-Term Borrowings

The Company’s Japanese subsidiary has lines of credit and short-term borrowing arrangements with two financial institutions which provide for aggregate borrowings as of December 31, 2011 of up to an equivalent of $32,200 U.S. dollars, which generally expire and are renewed at three month intervals. At December 31, 2011, total borrowings outstanding under these arrangements were $1,932 at an average interest rate of 0.65%. There were no borrowings outstanding under these arrangements at December 31, 2010.

 

16) Income Taxes

A reconciliation of the Company’s effective tax rate to the U.S. federal statutory rate follows:

 

 

     Years Ended December 31,  
       2011         2010         2009    

U.S. Federal income tax statutory rate

     35.0     35.0     (35.0 )% 

Federal and state tax credits

     (0.7     (1.1     (2.2

State income taxes, net of federal benefit

     1.1        1.0        (0.6

Effect of foreign operations taxed at various rates

     (4.1     (2.4     (2.2

Qualified production activity tax benefit

     (1.1     (0.8     (0.6

Non-deductible goodwill

                   27.2   

Deferred tax asset valuation allowance

     0.6        (0.1     0.3   

Other

     (0.5     0.7        0.9   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 
     30.3     32.3     (12.2 )% 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

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MKS INSTRUMENTS, INC.

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

The components of income (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes and the related provision (benefit) for income taxes consist of the following:

 

 

     Years Ended December 31,  
     2011     2010      2009  

Income (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes:

       

United States

   $ 108,474      $ 110,779       $ (193,341

Foreign

     77,578        85,645         23,321   
  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 
   $ 186,052      $ 196,424       $ (170,020
  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Current taxes (benefit):

       

United States Federal

   $ 25,824      $ 27,789       $ (24,606

State

     2,602        3,323         (175

Foreign

     20,346        22,296         7,265   
  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 
     48,772        53,408         (17,516

Deferred taxes (benefit):

       

United States Federal

     7,795        10,021         (394

State and Foreign

     (246     76         (2,749