rigl_Current_Folio_10Q

Table of Contents 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 


 

FORM 10-Q

 

(Mark One)

 

 

 

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

FOR THE QUARTERLY PERIOD ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 2015

 

OR

 

 

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM        TO        

 

Commission File Number 0-29889

 


 

Rigel Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

 

Delaware

 

94-3248524

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or

 

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

organization)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1180 Veterans Blvd.

 

 

South San Francisco, CA

 

94080

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

(Zip Code)

 

(650) 624-1100

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes   No 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes   No 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

 

 

 

Large accelerated filer

 

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

Smaller reporting company

(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)

 

 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes   No 

 

As of October 29, 2015, there were 88,525,899 shares of the registrant’s Common Stock outstanding.

 

 

 

 


 

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RIGEL PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

QUARTERLY REPORT ON FORM 10-Q

FOR THE QUARTERLY PERIOD ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 2015

 

INDEX

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Page

PART I 

FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

Item 1. 

Financial Statements

 

 

Condensed Balance Sheets — September 30, 2015 (Unaudited) and December 31, 2014

 

 

Condensed Statements of Operations (Unaudited) —three and nine months ended September 30, 2015 and 2014

 

 

Condensed Statements of Comprehensive Loss (Unaudited) —three and nine months ended September 30, 2015 and 2014

 

 

Condensed Statements of Cash Flows (Unaudited) —nine months ended September 30, 2015 and 2014

 

 

Notes to Condensed Financial Statements (Unaudited)

 

Item 2. 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

16 

Item 3. 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

26 

Item 4. 

Controls and Procedures

 

26 

PART II 

OTHER INFORMATION

 

26 

Item 1. 

Legal Proceedings

 

26 

Item 1A. 

Risk Factors

 

26 

Item 6. 

Exhibits

 

41 

 

 

 

 

Signatures 

 

 

42 

 

 

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PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

Item 1.Financial Statements

 

RIGEL PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

CONDENSED BALANCE SHEETS

(In thousands)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

September 30, 

 

December 31, 

 

 

 

2015

    

2014(1)

 

 

 

(unaudited)

 

 

 

 

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

38,577

 

$

15,203

 

Short-term investments

 

 

95,773

 

 

127,956

 

Accounts receivable

 

 

163

 

 

5,750

 

Prepaid and other current assets

 

 

1,667

 

 

1,628

 

Total current assets

 

 

136,180

 

 

150,537

 

Property and equipment, net

 

 

1,817

 

 

2,509

 

Other assets

 

 

1,173

 

 

1,089

 

 

 

$

139,170

 

$

154,135

 

Liabilities and stockholders’ equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable

 

$

689

 

$

1,613

 

Accrued compensation

 

 

4,361

 

 

2,832

 

Accrued research and development

 

 

5,199

 

 

3,993

 

Other accrued liabilities

 

 

1,241

 

 

534

 

Deferred revenue

 

 

18,261

 

 

 —

 

Deferred liability – sublease, current portion

 

 

2,953

 

 

2,803

 

Deferred rent, current portion

 

 

2,134

 

 

2,250

 

Total current liabilities

 

 

34,838

 

 

14,025

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Long-term portion of deferred liability – sublease

 

 

4,231

 

 

6,466

 

Long-term portion of deferred rent

 

 

3,662

 

 

5,347

 

Other long-term liabilities

 

 

33

 

 

51

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Commitments

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders’ equity:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preferred stock

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

Common stock

 

 

89

 

 

88

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

1,075,251

 

 

1,068,347

 

Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)

 

 

25

 

 

(7)

 

Accumulated deficit

 

 

(978,959)

 

 

(940,182)

 

Total stockholders’ equity

 

 

96,406

 

 

128,246

 

 

 

$

139,170

 

$

154,135

 

 


(1)

The balance sheet at December 31, 2014 has been derived from the audited financial statements included in Rigel’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2014.

 

See Accompanying Notes.

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RIGEL PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

CONDENSED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS

(In thousands, except per share amounts)

(unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended September 30, 

 

Nine Months Ended September 30, 

 

 

    

2015

    

2014

    

2015

    

2014

 

Contract revenues from collaborations

 

$

12,996

 

$

 

$

20,358

 

$

 

Costs and expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

 

15,501

 

 

16,151

 

 

46,262

 

 

53,083

 

General and administrative

 

 

4,276

 

 

4,889

 

 

13,092

 

 

15,798

 

Total costs and expenses

 

 

19,777

 

 

21,040

 

 

59,354

 

 

68,881

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(6,781)

 

 

(21,040)

 

 

(38,996)

 

 

(68,881)

 

Interest income

 

 

54

 

 

54

 

 

162

 

 

199

 

Gain on disposal of assets

 

 

55

 

 

44

 

 

57

 

 

46

 

Net loss

 

$

(6,672)

 

$

(20,942)

 

$

(38,777)

 

$

(68,636)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss per share, basic and diluted

 

$

(0.08)

 

$

(0.24)

 

$

(0.44)

 

$

(0.78)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Weighted average shares used in computing net loss per share, basic and diluted

 

 

88,506

 

 

87,793

 

 

88,231

 

 

87,618

 

 

See Accompanying Notes.

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RIGEL PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

CONDENSED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE LOSS

(In thousands)

(unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended September 30, 

 

Nine Months Ended September 30, 

 

 

    

2015

    

2014

    

2015

    

2014

 

Net loss

 

$

(6,672)

 

$

(20,942)

 

$

(38,777)

 

$

(68,636)

 

Other comprehensive income (loss):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unrealized gain (loss) on short-term investments

 

 

14

 

 

(26)

 

 

32

 

 

(31)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Comprehensive loss

 

$

(6,658)

 

$

(20,968)

 

$

(38,745)

 

$

(68,667)

 

 

See Accompanying Notes.

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RIGEL PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

CONDENSED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

(In thousands)

(unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nine Months Ended September 30, 

 

 

 

2015

    

2014

 

Operating activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(38,777)

 

$

(68,636)

 

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Depreciation and amortization

 

 

1,101

 

 

1,852

 

Stock-based compensation expense

 

 

5,778

 

 

6,576

 

Gain on disposal of assets

 

 

(57)

 

 

(46)

 

Changes in assets and liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts receivable

 

 

5,587

 

 

5,750

 

Prepaid and other current assets

 

 

(39)

 

 

1,079

 

Other assets

 

 

52

 

 

114

 

Accounts payable

 

 

(924)

 

 

(2,885)

 

Accrued compensation

 

 

1,529

 

 

787

 

Accrued research and development

 

 

1,206

 

 

1,438

 

Other accrued liabilities

 

 

571

 

 

134

 

Deferred revenue

 

 

18,261

 

 

 —

 

Deferred rent and other long term liabilities

 

 

(3,904)

 

 

(912)

 

Net cash used in operating activities

 

 

(9,616)

 

 

(54,749)

 

Investing activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Purchases of short-term investments

 

 

(109,882)

 

 

(171,659)

 

Maturities of short-term investments

 

 

142,097

 

 

217,891

 

Proceeds from disposal of assets

 

 

60

 

 

 —

 

Capital expenditures

 

 

(412)

 

 

(213)

 

Net cash provided by investing activities

 

 

31,863

 

 

46,019

 

Financing activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net proceeds from issuances of common stock

 

 

1,127

 

 

690

 

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

 

1,127

 

 

690

 

Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents

 

 

23,374

 

 

(8,040)

 

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period

 

 

15,203

 

 

20,854

 

Cash and cash equivalents at end of period

 

$

38,577

 

$

12,814

 

 

 

See Accompanying Notes.

 

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Rigel Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Notes to Condensed Financial Statements

(unaudited)

 

In this report, “Rigel,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Rigel Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

 

1.Nature of Operations

 

We were incorporated in the state of Delaware on June 14, 1996. We are engaged in the discovery and development of novel, small-molecule drugs for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, autoimmune diseases, and cancers.

 

2.Basis of Presentation

 

Our accompanying unaudited condensed financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (U.S. GAAP), for interim financial information and pursuant to the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (Securities Act). Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and notes required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements. These unaudited condensed financial statements include only normal and recurring adjustments that we believe are necessary to fairly state our financial position and the results of our operations and cash flows. Interim-period results are not necessarily indicative of results of operations or cash flows for a full-year or any subsequent interim period. The balance sheet at December 31, 2014 has been derived from audited financial statements at that date, but does not include all disclosures required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements. Because all of the disclosures required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements are not included herein, these interim unaudited condensed financial statements and the notes accompanying them should be read in conjunction with our audited financial statements and the notes thereto included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2014.

 

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results could differ from these estimates.

 

3.Recent Accounting Pronouncements

 

In August 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2014-15—Disclosure of Uncertainties about an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern under ASC Subtopic 205-40, Presentation of Financial Statements—Going Concern. ASU No. 2014-15 provides guidance about management’s responsibility to evaluate whether there is substantial doubt about an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern and to provide related footnote disclosures. Management’s evaluation should be based on relevant conditions and events that are known and reasonably knowable at the date that the financial statements are issued (or at the date that the financial statements are available to be issued when applicable). Substantial doubt about an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern exists when relevant conditions and events, considered in the aggregate, indicate that it is probable that the entity will be unable to meet its obligations as they become due within one year after the date that the financial statements are issued (or available to be issued). ASU No. 2014-15 is effective for the annual period ending after December 15, 2016 and early adoption is permitted. We will continue to evaluate the guidance under ASU No. 2014-15 and present the required disclosures within our financial statements at the time of adoption. We believe that the adoption of ASU No. 2014-15 will have no material effect on our financial statements.

 

In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09—Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which supersedes the revenue recognition requirements under ASC Topic 605, Revenue Recognition, and most industry-specific guidance under the ASC. The core principle of the ASU No. 2014-09 is that an entity should recognize revenue when it transfers promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. ASU 2014-09 defines a five step process to achieve this core principle and, in doing so, it is possible more judgment and estimates may be required within the revenue recognition process than

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required under existing U.S. GAAP including identifying performance obligations in the contract, estimating the amount of variable consideration to include in the transaction price and allocating the transaction price to each separate performance obligation. ASU No. 2014-09 also requires additional disclosures to enable users of financial statements to understand the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from customer contracts. ASU No. 2014-09 allows for either full retrospective or modified retrospective adoption, and we have not yet determined which approach we will apply. In July 2015, the FASB deferred by one year the effective date of ASU No. 2014-09 with the new effective date beginning after December 15, 2017, and the interim periods within that year and will allow early adoption for all entities as of the original effective date for public business entities, which was annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016.  We are currently evaluating the potential impact of the adoption of ASU No. 2014-09 on our financial statements and cannot estimate the impact of adoption at this time.

 

4. Stock Award Plans

 

We have three stock option plans, our 2011 Equity Incentive Plan (2011 Plan), 2000 Equity Incentive Plan (2000 Plan) and 2000 Non-Employee Directors’ Stock Option Plan (Directors’ Plan), that provide for granting to our officers, directors and all other employees and consultants options to purchase shares of our common stock. We also have our Employee Stock Purchase Plan (Purchase Plan), pursuant to which eligible employees can purchase shares of our common stock at a price per share equal to the lesser of 85% of the fair market value on the first day of the offering period or 85% of the fair market value on the purchase date. The fair value of each option award is estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model which considered our stock price, as well as assumptions regarding a number of complex and subjective variables. These variables include, but are not limited to, volatility, expected term, risk-free interest rate and dividends. We estimate volatility over the expected term of the option using historical share price performance. For expected term, we take into consideration our historical data of options exercised, cancelled and expired. The risk-free rate is based on the U.S. Treasury constant maturity rate. We have not paid and do not expect to pay dividends in the foreseeable future. In order to calculate stock-based compensation expense, we also estimate the forfeiture rate using our historical experience with options that cancel before they vest. We review our forfeiture rates each quarter and make any necessary changes to our estimates. We use the straight-line attribution method over the requisite employee service period for the entire award in recognizing stock-based compensation expense. We granted certain performance-based stock options to purchase shares of our common stock which will vest upon the achievement of certain corporate performance-based milestones.  We determined the fair values of these performance-based stock options using Black-Scholes option pricing model at the date of grant. For the portion of the performance-based stock options of which the performance condition is considered probable of achievement, we recognized stock-based compensation expense on the related estimated fair value of such options on a  straight-line basis from the date of grant up to the date when we expect the performance condition will be probably achieved. For the performance conditions that are not considered probable of achievement at the grant date or upon quarterly re-evaluation, prior to the event actually occurring, we will recognize the related stock-based compensation expense when the event occurs or when we can determine that the performance condition is probable of achievement.  In those cases, we will recognize the change in estimate at the time we determine the condition is probable of achievement (by recognizing stock-based compensation expense as cumulative catch-up as if we had estimated at the grant date that the performance condition will be achieved) and recognize the remaining compensation cost up to the date when we expect the performance condition will be probably achieved, if any.

 

5.Net Loss Per Share

 

Basic net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period and the number of additional shares of common stock that would have been outstanding if potentially dilutive securities had been issued. Potentially dilutive securities include a warrant to purchase our common shares and stock options and shares issuable under our stock award plans. The dilutive effect of these potentially dilutive securities is reflected in diluted earnings per share by application of the treasury stock method. Under the treasury stock method, an increase in the fair market value of our common stock can result in a greater dilutive effect from potentially dilutive securities.

 

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We had securities which could potentially dilute basic loss per share, but were excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share, as their effect would have been antidilutive. These securities consist of the following (in thousands):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended 

 

Nine Months Ended 

 

 

 

September 30, 

 

September 30,

 

 

 

2015

    

2014

 

2015

    

2014

 

Outstanding stock options

 

 

19,711

 

 

17,336

 

 

19,711

 

 

17,336

 

Warrant to purchase common stock

 

 

200

 

 

200

 

 

200

 

 

200

 

Purchase Plan

 

 

78

 

 

103

 

 

78

 

 

103

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

19,989

 

 

17,639

 

 

19,989

 

 

17,639

 

 

 

6.Stock-based Compensation

 

Total stock-based compensation expense related to all of our share-based payments that we recognized for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015 and 2014 were as follows (in thousands):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended 

 

Nine Months Ended

 

 

 

September 30, 

 

September 30, 

 

 

 

2015

    

2014

 

2015

    

2014

 

Research and development

 

$

966

 

$

1,151

 

$

3,182

 

$

3,654

 

General and administrative

 

 

849

 

 

929

 

 

2,596

 

 

2,922

 

Total stock-based compensation expense

 

$

1,815

 

$

2,080

 

$

5,778

 

$

6,576

 

 

The fair value of each option award is estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. We have segregated option awards into the following three homogenous groups for the purposes of determining fair values of options: officers and directors, all other employees, and consultants.

 

We determined weighted-average valuation assumptions separately for each of these groups as follows:

 

·

Volatility—We estimated volatility using our historical share price performance over the expected life of the option. We also considered other factors, such as implied volatility, our current clinical trials and other company activities that may affect the volatility of our stock in the future. We determined that at this time historical volatility is more indicative of our expected future stock performance than implied volatility.

 

·

Expected term—For options granted to consultants, we use the contractual term of the option, which is generally ten years, for the initial valuation of the option and the remaining contractual term of the option for the succeeding periods. We analyzed various historical data to determine the applicable expected term for each of the other option groups. This data included: (1) for exercised options, the term of the options from option grant date to exercise date; (2) for cancelled options, the term of the options from option grant date to cancellation date, excluding non-vested option forfeitures; and (3) for options that remained outstanding at the balance sheet date, the term of the options from option grant date to the end of the reporting period and the estimated remaining term of the options. The consideration and calculation of the above data gave us reasonable estimates of the expected term for each employee group. We also considered the vesting schedules of the options granted and factors surrounding exercise behavior of the option groups, our current market price and company activity that may affect our market price. In addition, we considered the optionee type (i.e., officers and directors or all other employees) and other factors that may affect the expected term of the option.

 

·

Risk-free interest rate—The risk-free interest rate is based on U.S. Treasury constant maturity rates with similar terms to the expected term of the options for each option group.

 

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·

Dividend yield—The expected dividend yield is 0% as we have not paid and do not expect to pay dividends in the future.

 

Pursuant to FASB ASC 718, we are required to estimate the amount of expected forfeitures when calculating compensation costs. We estimated the forfeiture rate using our historical experience with non-vested options. We adjust our stock-based compensation expense as actual forfeitures occur, review our estimated forfeiture rates each quarter and make changes to our estimate as appropriate.

 

The following table summarizes the weighted-average assumptions relating to options granted pursuant to our equity incentive plans for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015 and 2014:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended 

 

Nine Months Ended 

 

 

 

September 30, 

 

September 30, 

 

 

    

2015

    

2014

    

2015

    

2014

 

Risk-free interest rate

 

1.9

%  

2.2

%  

1.8

%  

2.2

%

Expected term (in years)

 

6.0

 

6.0

 

6.5

 

6.6

 

Dividend yield

 

0.0

%  

0.0

%  

0.0

%  

0.0

%

Expected volatility

 

59.6

%  

67.1

%  

65.0

%  

74.9

%

 

The exercise price of stock options is at the market price of our common stock on the date immediately preceding the date of grant. Options become exercisable at varying dates and generally expire 10 years from the date of grant. We granted options to purchase 3,811,920 shares of common stock during the nine months ended September 30, 2015, with a grant-date weighted-average fair value of $1.40 per share. Of the 3,811,920 common stock options granted, 1,175,000 shares were related to performance-based stock option awards which will vest upon the achievement of a corporate performance-based milestone.

 

We granted options to purchase 3,424,510 shares of common stock during the nine months ended September 30, 2014, with a grant-date weighted-average fair value of $2.34 per share. Of the 3,424,510 common stock options granted, 950,000 shares were related to performance-based stock option awards, of which only 700,000 shares remain outstanding as of September 30, 2015.  These remaining shares will vest upon the achievement of certain corporate performance-based milestones. As of September 30, 2015, there was approximately $5.7 million of total unrecognized stock-based compensation cost, net of estimated forfeitures, related to all unvested options granted under our equity incentive plans.

 

At September 30, 2015, there were 4,660,635 shares of common stock available for future grant under our equity incentive plans and 195,364 options to purchase shares were exercised during the nine months ended September 30, 2015.

 

Employee Stock Purchase Plan

 

The fair value of awards granted under our Purchase Plan is estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model, which uses weighted- average assumptions. Our Purchase Plan provides for a twenty-four month offering period comprised of four six-month purchase periods with a look-back option. A look-back option is a provision in our Purchase Plan under which eligible employees can purchase shares of our common stock at a price per share equal to the lesser of 85% of the fair market value on the first day of the offering period or 85% of the fair market value on the purchase date. Our Purchase Plan also includes a feature that provides for a new offering period to begin when the fair market value of our common stock on any purchase date during an offering period falls below the fair market value of our common stock on the first day of such offering period. This feature is called a “reset.” Participants are automatically enrolled in the new offering period. We had a “reset” on January 2, 2015 because the fair market value of our stock on December 31, 2014 was lower than the fair market value of our stock on July 1, 2014, the first day of the offering period. We applied modification accounting in accordance with ASC Topic No. 718, Stock Compensation, to determine the incremental fair value associated with this Purchase Plan “reset” and will recognize the related stock-based compensation expense according to FASB ASC Subtopic No. 718-50, Employee Share Purchase Plans. The total

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incremental fair value for this Purchase Plan “reset” was approximately $792,000,  and is being recognized from January 2, 2015 to December 31, 2016.

 

As of September 30, 2015, there were approximately 3,290,397 shares reserved for future issuance under the Purchase Plan. The following table summarizes the weighted-average assumptions related to our Purchase Plan for the nine months ended September 30, 2015 and 2014. Expected volatilities for our Purchase Plan are based on the historical volatility of our stock. Expected term represents the weighted-average of the purchase periods within the offering period. The risk-free interest rate for periods within the expected term is based on U.S. Treasury constant maturity rates.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nine Months Ended 

 

 

 

September 30, 

 

 

    

2015

    

2014

 

Risk-free interest rate

 

0.6

%  

0.3

%

Expected term (in years)

 

1.5

 

1.7

 

Dividend yield

 

0.0

%  

0.0

%

Expected volatility

 

61.2

%  

66.0

%

 

 

7.Research and Development Accruals

 

We have various contracts with third parties related to our research and development activities. Costs that are incurred but not billed to us as of the end of the period are accrued. We make estimates of the amounts incurred in each period based on the information available to us and our knowledge of the nature of the contractual activities generating such costs. Clinical trial contract expenses are accrued based on units of activity. Expenses related to other research and development contracts, such as research contracts, toxicology study contracts and manufacturing contracts are estimated to be incurred generally on a straight-line basis over the duration of the contracts. Raw materials and study materials purchased for us by third parties are expensed at the time of purchase.

 

8.Sponsored Research and License Agreements

 

We conduct research and development programs independently and in connection with our corporate collaborators. We are an active participant in our collaboration agreement with Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (BMS) for the discovery, development and commercialization of cancer immunotherapies based on our small molecule TGF beta receptor kinase inhibitors, as discussed below. We do not have ongoing participation obligations under our agreements with Aclaris Therapeutics International Limited (Aclaris) for the development and commercialization of certain janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors for the  treatment of alopecia areata and other dermatological conditions, AstraZeneca AB (AZ) for the development and commercialization of R256, an inhaled JAK inhibitor, BerGenBio AS (BerGenBio) for the development and commercialization of an oncology program, and Daiichi Sankyo (Daiichi) to pursue research related to a specific target from a novel class of drug targets called ligases. Under these agreements, which we entered into in the ordinary course of business, we received or may be entitled to receive upfront cash payments, progress dependent contingent payments on events achieved by such partners and royalties on any net sales of products sold by such partners under the agreements. Total future contingent payments to us under all of these current agreements could exceed $533.6 million if all potential product candidates achieved all of the payment triggering events under all of our current agreements (based on a single product candidate under each agreement). Of this amount, up to $150.5 million relates to the achievement of development events, up to $345.6 million relates to the achievement of regulatory events and up to $37.5 million relates to the achievement of certain commercial or launch events. This estimated future contingent amount does not include any estimated royalties that could be due to us if the partners successfully commercialize any of the licensed products.

 

In February 2015, we entered into a collaboration agreement with BMS for the discovery, development and commercialization of cancer immunotherapies based on our extensive portfolio of small molecule TGF beta receptor kinase inhibitors. Under the collaboration agreement, BMS will have exclusive rights and will be solely responsible for the clinical development and commercialization of any products.  Pursuant to the collaboration agreement with BMS, we received a noncreditable and non-refundable upfront payment of $30.0 million in March 2015. We are also entitled to receive development and regulatory contingent fees that could exceed $309.0 million for a successful compound

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approved in certain indications. In addition, we are also eligible to receive tiered royalties on the net sales of any products from the collaboration. BMS shall also reimburse us for agreed upon costs based on a contractual cost per full-time equivalent employee in connection with the performance of research activities during the research term. Under the collaboration agreement, we were obligated to provide the following deliverables: (i) granting of license rights to our program, (ii) participation in the Joint Research Committee, and (iii) performance of research activities.  We concluded that these deliverables are a single unit of accounting as the license does not have stand-alone value apart from the other deliverables. Accordingly, the $30.0 million upfront payment is being recognized ratably as revenue from the effective date of the agreement through September 2016, the end of the estimated research term. We believe that straight-line recognition of this revenue is appropriate as the research is expected to be performed ratably over the research period. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015, we recognized revenue of $4.8 million and $11.7 million, respectively, relating to the upfront payment and $163,000 and $619,000, respectively, relating to the research activities we performed. As of September 30, 2015, deferred revenue related to the $30.0 million upfront payment was $18.3 million.

 

In August 2015, we entered into a license agreement with Aclaris, pursuant to which Aclaris will have exclusive rights and will assume responsibility for the continued development of certain JAK inhibitor compounds for the treatment of alopecia areata and other dermatological conditions. Under the license agreement, we received a noncreditable and non-refundable upfront payment of $8.0 million in September 2015. We are also entitled to receive development and regulatory contingent fees that could exceed $80.0 million for a successful compound approved in certain indications. In addition, we are also eligible to receive tiered royalties on the net sales of any products under the agreement. We concluded that the granting of the license, which has been fully delivered to Aclaris as of September 30, 2015, represents the sole deliverable under this agreement.  Accordingly, we have recognized the $8.0 million payment as revenue during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015.

 

9.Cash, Cash Equivalents and Short-Term Investments

 

Cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments consisted of the following (in thousands):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

September 30, 

 

December 31, 

 

 

 

2015

    

2014

 

Checking account

 

$

2,023

 

$

175

 

Money market funds

 

 

24,105

 

 

10,027

 

U. S. treasury bills

 

 

 —

 

 

2,010

 

Government-sponsored enterprise securities

 

 

50,260

 

 

45,786

 

Corporate bonds and commercial paper

 

 

57,962

 

 

85,161

 

 

 

$

134,350

 

$

143,159

 

Reported as:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

38,577

 

$

15,203

 

Short-term investments

 

 

95,773

 

 

127,956

 

 

 

$

134,350

 

$

143,159

 

 

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Cash equivalents and short-term investments include the following securities with gross unrealized gains and losses (in thousands):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 

 

    

Gross

    

Gross

    

 

 

 

 

 

Amortized

 

Unrealized

 

Unrealized

 

 

 

 

September 30, 2015

 

Cost

 

Gains

 

Losses

 

Fair Value

 

Government-sponsored enterprise securities

 

$

50,249

 

$

12

 

$

(1)

 

$

50,260

 

Corporate bonds and commercial paper

 

 

57,948

 

 

17

 

 

(3)

 

 

57,962

 

Total

 

$

108,197

 

$

29

 

$

(4)

 

$

108,222

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 

 

    

Gross

    

Gross

    

 

 

 

 

 

Amortized

 

Unrealized

 

Unrealized

 

 

 

 

December 31, 2014

 

Cost

 

Gains

 

Losses

 

Fair Value

 

U. S. treasury bills

 

$

2,010

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

$

2,010

 

Government-sponsored enterprise securities

 

 

45,793

 

 

4

 

 

(11)

 

 

45,786

 

Corporate bonds and commercial paper

 

 

85,161

 

 

21

 

 

(21)

 

 

85,161

 

Total

 

$

132,964

 

$

25

 

$

(32)

 

$

132,957

 

 

As of September 30, 2015, our cash equivalents and short-term investments have contractual maturities within one year. 

 

As of September 30, 2015, our cash equivalents and short-term investments had a weighted-average time to maturity of approximately 101 days. We view our short-term investments portfolio as available for use in current operations. Accordingly, we have classified our investments as short-term investments. We have the ability to hold all investments as of September 30, 2015 through their respective maturity dates. At September 30, 2015, we had no investments that had been in a continuous unrealized loss position for more than twelve months.  As of September 30, 2015, a total of 14 individual securities had been in an unrealized loss position for twelve months or less and the losses were determined to be temporary. The gross unrealized losses above were caused by interest rate increases. No significant facts or circumstances have arisen to indicate that there has been any deterioration in the creditworthiness of the issuers of the securities held by us. Based on our review of these securities, including the assessment of the duration and severity of the unrealized losses and our ability and intent to hold the investments until maturity, there were no other-than-temporary impairments for these securities at September 30, 2015.

 

The following table shows the fair value and gross unrealized losses of our investments in individual securities that are in an unrealized loss position, aggregated by investment category (in thousands):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

September 30, 2015

    

Fair Value

    

Unrealized Losses

 

Government-sponsored enterprise securities

 

$

2,009

 

$

(1)

 

Corporate bonds and commercial paper

 

 

19,901

 

 

(3)

 

Total

 

$

21,910

 

$

(4)

 

 

 

10.Fair Value

 

Under FASB ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures, fair value is defined as the price at which an asset could be exchanged or a liability transferred in a transaction between knowledgeable, willing parties in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability. Where available, fair value is based on observable market prices or parameters or derived from such prices or parameters. Where observable prices or parameters are not available, valuation models are applied.

 

Assets and liabilities recorded at fair value in our financial statements are categorized based upon the level of judgment associated with the inputs used to measure their fair value. Hierarchical levels directly related to the amount of subjectivity associated with the inputs to fair valuation of these assets and liabilities, are as follows:

 

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Level 1—Inputs are unadjusted, quoted prices in active markets for identical assets at the reporting date. Active markets are those in which transactions for the asset or liability occur in sufficient frequency and volume to provide reasonably accurate pricing information on an ongoing basis.

 

The fair valued assets we hold that are generally included under this Level 1 are money market securities where fair value is based on publicly quoted prices.

 

Level 2—Are inputs, other than quoted prices included in Level 1, that are either directly or indirectly observable for the asset or liability through correlation with market data at the reporting date and for the duration of the instrument’s anticipated life.

 

The fair valued assets we hold that are generally assessed under Level 2 included government-sponsored enterprise securities, U.S. treasury bills and corporate bonds and commercial paper. We utilize third party pricing services in developing fair value measurements where fair value is based on valuation methodologies such as models using observable market inputs, including benchmark yields, reported trades, broker/dealer quotes, bids, offers and other reference data. We use quotes from external pricing service providers and other on-line quotation systems to verify the fair value of investments provided by our third party pricing service providers. We review independent auditor’s reports from our third party pricing service providers particularly regarding the controls over pricing and valuation of financial instruments and ensure that our internal controls address certain control deficiencies, if any, and complementary user entity controls are in place.

 

Level 3—Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities and which reflect management’s best estimate of what market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability at the reporting date. Consideration is given to the risk inherent in the valuation technique and the risk inherent in the inputs to the model.

 

We do not have fair valued assets classified under Level 3.

 

Fair Value on a Recurring Basis

 

Financial assets measured at fair value on a recurring basis are categorized in the tables below based upon the lowest level of significant input to the valuations (in thousands):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assets at Fair Value as of September 30, 2015

 

 

    

Level 1

    

Level 2

    

Level 3

    

Total

 

Money market funds

 

$

24,105

 

$

 

$

 —

 

$

24,105

 

Government-sponsored enterprise securities

 

 

 

 

50,260

 

 

 —

 

 

50,260

 

Corporate bonds and commercial paper

 

 

 

 

57,962

 

 

 —

 

 

57,962

 

Total

 

$

24,105

 

$

108,222

 

$

 —

 

$

132,327

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assets at Fair Value as of December 31, 2014

 

 

    

Level 1

    

Level 2

    

Level 3

    

Total

 

Money market funds

 

$

10,027

 

$

 

$

 —

 

$

10,027

 

U. S. treasury bills

 

 

 

 

2,010

 

 

 —

 

 

2,010

 

Government-sponsored enterprise securities

 

 

 

 

45,786

 

 

 —

 

 

45,786

 

Corporate bonds and commercial paper

 

 

 

 

85,161

 

 

 —

 

 

85,161

 

Total

 

$

10,027

 

$

132,957

 

$

 —

 

$

142,984

 

 

 

11.Sublease Agreement

 

In December 2014, we entered into a sublease agreement with an unrelated third party to occupy a portion of our research and office space pursuant to which we expect to receive over $6.5 million in sublease income (excluding our subtenant’s share of facilities operating expenses) over the remaining term of the sublease. In connection with this sublease, we recognized a loss on sublease of $9.3 million during the fourth quarter of 2014. We record rent expense on

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a straight-line basis for our lease, net of sublease income, wherein such arrangements contain scheduled rent increases over the term of the lease and sublease, respectively. For our sublease arrangement which we classified as an operating lease, our loss on the sublease is comprised of the present value of our future payments to our landlord less the present value of our future rental receipts expected from our subtenant over the term of the sublease. The liability arising from this sublease agreement was determined using a credit-adjusted risk-free rate to discount the estimated future net cash flows. The changes in the liability related to the sublease agreement for the nine months ended September 30, 2015 were as follows (in thousands):

 

 

 

 

 

 

Balance at January 1, 2015

    

$

9,269

 

Accretion of deferred liability

 

 

437

 

Amortization of deferred liability

 

 

(2,522)

 

Balance at September 30, 2015

 

$

7,184

 

 

 

 

 

12.Severance Agreement with Former Chief Executive Officer

 

In December 2014, we entered into a severance agreement with our former Chief Executive Officer (CEO) pursuant to his resignation as CEO and member of the Board of Directors effective November 20, 2014, and his retirement effective December 31, 2014. The severance agreement provided for, among other benefits, cash severance payments of $1.1 million payable in installments over a duration of 18 months beginning on January 1, 2015, which is included as part of the Accrued Compensation account in the Balance Sheets. The change in the severance liability to our former CEO for the nine months ended September 30, 2015 was as follows (in thousands):

 

 

 

 

 

 

Balance at January 1, 2015

    

$

1,091

 

Payments during the period

 

 

(545)

 

Balance at September 30, 2015

 

$

546

 

 

 

 

 

13.Controlled Equity Offering

 

In August 2015, we entered into a Controlled Equity OfferingSM Sales Agreement with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. (“Cantor”), as sales agent, pursuant to which we may sell, through Cantor, up to an aggregate of $30.0 million in shares of our common stock. All sales of our common stock will be made pursuant to a shelf registration statement that was declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) on July 13, 2015.  Cantor is acting as our sole sales agent for any sales made under the Sales Agreement for a low single-digit commission on gross proceeds.  The common stock is being sold at prevailing market prices at the time of the sale, and, as a result, prices may vary.  Unless otherwise terminated earlier, the Controlled Equity OfferingSM Sales Agreement continues until all shares available under the agreement have been sold.  As of September 30, 2015, we have not made any sales under the Sales Agreement.

 

 

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Item 2.Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

This discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with our financial statements and the accompanying notes included in this report and the audited financial statements and accompanying notes included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2014. Operating results for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015 are not necessarily indicative of results that may occur in future interim periods or for the full fiscal year.

 

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains statements indicating expectations about future performance and other forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act, that involve risks and uncertainties. We usually use words such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “intend,” or the negative of these terms or similar expressions to identify these forward-looking statements. These statements appear throughout this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and are statements regarding our current expectation, belief or intent, primarily with respect to our operations and related industry developments. Examples of these statements include, but are not limited to, statements regarding the following: our business and scientific strategies; the progress of our and our collaborators’ product development programs, including clinical testing, and the timing of results thereof; our corporate collaborations and revenues that may be received from our collaborations and the timing of those potential payments; our expectations with respect to regulatory submissions and approvals; our drug discovery technologies; our research and development expenses; protection of our intellectual property; sufficiency of our cash and capital resources and the need for additional capital; and our operations and legal risks. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements for many reasons, including as a result of the risks and uncertainties discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in Item 1A of Part II of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which it is made, and we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which the statement is made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. New factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict which factors will arise. In addition, we cannot assess the impact of each factor on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements.

 

Overview

 

We are a clinical-stage biotechnology company focused on the discovery and development of novel, small-molecule drugs for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, autoimmune diseases, and cancers. Our pioneering research focuses on signaling pathways that are critical to disease mechanisms. We currently have the following product candidates in development: fostamatinib, an oral spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) inhibitor, which is in Phase 3 clinical trials for immune thrombocytopenic purpura  (ITP) and a Phase 2 clinical trial for IgA Nephropathy (IgAN); R348, a topical ophthalmic JAK/SYK inhibitor, in a Phase 2 clinical trial for dry eye in ocular graft-versus-host disease (GvHD); two oncology product candidates in Phase 1 development with partners BerGenBio and Daiichi; and three preclinical programs with partners AZ for R256 in asthma, BMS for TGF beta inhibitors in immuno-oncology, and Aclaris  for certain JAK inhibitors in dermatology.

 

Product Development Programs

 

Our product development portfolio features multiple novel, small molecule drug candidates whose specialized mechanisms of action are intended to provide therapeutic benefit for a range inflammatory diseases, autoimmune diseases, and cancers.

 

Clinical Stage Programs

 

Fostamatinib—Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura

 

Disease background.  Chronic ITP affects an estimated 60,000 to 125,000 people in the U.S. In patients with ITP, the immune system attacks and destroys the body’s own blood platelets, which play an active role in blood clotting

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and healing. ITP patients can suffer extraordinary bruising, bleeding and fatigue as a result of low platelet counts. Current therapies for ITP include steroids, blood platelet production boosters that imitate thrombopoietin (TPOs) and splenectomy.

 

Orally-available SYK inhibitor program.  Taken in tablet form, fostamatinib blocks the activation of SYK inside immune cells. ITP causes the body to produce antibodies that attach to healthy platelets in the blood stream. Immune cells recognize these antibodies and affix to them, which activates the SYK enzyme inside the immune cell, and triggers the destruction of the antibody and the attached platelet. When SYK is inhibited by fostamatinib, it interrupts this immune cell function and allows the platelets to escape destruction. The results of our Phase 2 clinical trial, in which fostamatinib was orally administered to sixteen adults with chronic ITP, published in Blood (2009, volume 113, number 14), showed that fostamatinib significantly increased the platelet counts of certain ITP patients, including those who had failed other currently available agents.

 

In October 2013, we met with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for an end-of-Phase 2 meeting for fostamatinib in ITP. Based on that meeting, we designed a Phase 3 clinical program, called fostamatinib in thrombocytopenia (FIT), in which a total of 150 ITP patients will be randomized into two identical multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. The patients will have been diagnosed with persistent or chronic ITP, and have blood platelet counts consistently below 30,000 per microliter of blood. Two-thirds of the subjects will receive fostamatinib orally at 100 mg bid (twice daily) and the other third will receive placebo on the same schedule. Subjects are expected to remain on treatment for 24 weeks. At week four of treatment, subjects who meet certain platelet count and tolerability thresholds will have their dosage of fostamatinib (or corresponding placebo) increased to 150 mg bid. The primary efficacy endpoint of this program is a stable platelet response by week 24 with platelet counts at or above 50,000 per microliter of blood for at least four of the final six qualifying blood draws. In August 2015, the FDA granted our request for Orphan Drug designation to fostamatinib, our oral SYK inhibitor, for the treatment of ITP. Our Phase 3 clinical program for ITP is currently actively enrolling patients in the U.S., Europe and Australia. We expect to separately report top line results of the two Phase 3 trials, with the first trial reporting in mid-2016 and the other trial reporting shortly thereafter.

 

Fostamatinib—IgAN

 

Disease background.  IgAN is an autoimmune disease that severely affects the functioning of the kidneys. An estimated 12,000 Americans are diagnosed with this type of glomerulonephritis each year, with 25% of its victims eventually requiring dialysis and/or kidney transplantation over time. IgAN is characterized by the deposition of IgA immune complexes in the glomeruli of the kidneys leading to an inflammatory response and subsequent tissue damage that ultimately disrupts the normal filtering function of the kidneys. By inhibiting SYK in kidney cells, fostamatinib may block the signaling of IgA immune complex receptors and arrest or slow destruction of the glomeruli.

 

Orally-available SYK inhibitor program.  We have a Phase 2 clinical trial in patients with IgAN. We expect the clinical trial, called SIGN (SYK Inhibition for Glomerulonephritis), to enroll about 25 patients with the disease and report results by the end of 2016.

 

R348—Dry Eye in Patients with Ocular Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GvHD)

 

Disease background.  According to an article published by the American Academy of Ophthalmology, a significant number (22% to 80%) of patients with acute or chronic GvHD develop a secondary incidence of dry eye (keratoconjunctivitis sicca). In general, these patients are severely ill and have a great medical need for a topical therapy that may better manage their symptoms.

 

Topical Ophthalmic JAK/SYK inhibitor program.  R348, a topical ophthalmic JAK/SYK inhibitor, is being evaluated in a Phase 2 clinical trial of patients with ocular GvHD to determine if it reduces inflammation and limits the damage to the eye tissue caused by the disease. We expect results of this clinical trial in 2016.

 

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Research/Preclinical Programs

 

We are conducting proprietary research in the broad disease areas of inflammation/immunology, cancers and muscle wasting/muscle endurance. Within each disease area, our researchers are investigating mechanisms of action as well as screening compounds against potential novel targets and optimizing those leads that appear to have the greatest potential.

 

Sponsored Research and License Agreements

 

We conduct research and development programs independently and in connection with our corporate collaborators. We are an active participant in our collaboration agreement with BMS for the discovery, development and commercialization of cancer immunotherapies based on our small molecule TGF beta receptor kinase inhibitors, as discussed below. We do not have ongoing participation obligations under our agreements with Aclaris for the development and commercialization of certain JAK inhibitors for the treatment of alopecia areata and other dermatological conditions, AZ for the development and commercialization of R256, an inhaled JAK inhibitor, BerGenBio for the development and commercialization of an oncology program, and Daiichi to pursue research related to a specific target from a novel class of drug targets called ligases. Under these agreements, which we entered into in the ordinary course of business, we received or may be entitled to receive upfront cash payments, progress dependent contingent payments on events achieved by such partners and royalties on any net sales of products sold by such partners under the agreements. Total future contingent payments to us under all of these current agreements could exceed $533.6 million if all potential product candidates achieved all of the payment triggering events under all of our current agreements (based on a single product candidate under each agreement). Of this amount, up to $150.5 million relates to the achievement of development events, up to $345.6 million relates to the achievement of regulatory events and up to $37.5 million relates to the achievement of certain commercial or launch events. This estimated future contingent amount does not include any estimated royalties that could be due to us if the partners successfully commercialize any of the licensed products. 

 

Since we do not control the research, development or commercialization of the product candidates generated under these agreements, we are not able to reasonably estimate when, if at all, any contingent payments would become payable to us. As such, the contingent payments we could receive thereunder involve a substantial degree of risk to achieve and may never be received. Accordingly, we do not expect, and investors should not assume, that we will receive all of the potential contingent payments provided for under these agreements and it is possible that we may never receive any additional significant contingent payments or royalties under these agreements.

 

In February 2015, we entered into a collaboration agreement with BMS for the discovery, development and commercialization of cancer immunotherapies based on our extensive portfolio of small molecule TGF beta receptor kinase inhibitors. Under the collaboration agreement, BMS will have exclusive rights and will be solely responsible for the clinical development and commercialization of any products.  Pursuant to the collaboration agreement with BMS, we received a noncreditable and non-refundable upfront payment of $30.0 million in March 2015. We are also entitled to receive development and regulatory contingent fees that could exceed $309.0 million for a successful compound approved in certain indications. In addition, we are also eligible to receive tiered royalties on the net sales of any products from the collaboration. BMS shall also reimburse us for agreed upon costs based on a contractual cost per full-time equivalent employee in connection with the performance of research activities during the research term. Under the collaboration agreement, we were obligated to provide the following deliverables: (i) granting of license rights to our program, (ii) participation in the Joint Research Committee, and (iii) performance of research activities.  We concluded that these deliverables are a single unit of accounting as the license does not have stand-alone value apart from the other deliverables. Accordingly, the $30.0 million upfront payment is being recognized ratably as revenue from the effective date of the agreement through September 2016, the end of the estimated research term. We believe that straight-line recognition of this revenue is appropriate as the research is expected to be performed ratably over the research period. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015, we recognized revenue of $4.8 million and $11.7 million, respectively, relating to the upfront payment and $163,000 and $619,000, respectively, relating to the research activities we performed. As of September 30, 2015, deferred revenue related to the $30.0 million upfront payment was $18.3 million.

 

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In August 2015, we entered into license agreement with Aclaris, pursuant to which Aclaris will have exclusive rights and will assume responsibility for the continued development of certain JAK inhibitor compounds for the treatment of alopecia areata and other dermatological conditions. Under the license agreement, we received a noncreditable and non-refundable upfront payment of $8.0 million in September 2015. We are also entitled to receive development and regulatory contingent fees that could exceed $80.0 million for a successful compound approved in certain indications. In addition, we are also eligible to receive tiered royalties on the net sales of any products under the agreement.  We concluded that the granting of the license, which has been fully delivered to Aclaris as of September 30, 2015, represents the sole deliverable under this agreement.  Accordingly, we have recognized the $8.0 million upfront payment as revenue during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015.

 

Research and Development Expenses

 

Our research and development expenditures include costs related to preclinical and clinical trials, scientific personnel, supplies, equipment, consultants, sponsored research, stock based compensation, and allocated facility costs.

 

We do not track fully burdened research and development costs separately for each of our drug candidates. We review our research and development expense by focusing on three categories: research, development, and other. Our research team is focused on creating a portfolio of product candidates that can be developed into small molecule therapeutics in our own proprietary programs or with potential collaborative partners and utilizes our robust discovery engine to rapidly discover and validate new product candidates in our focused range of therapeutic indications. “Research” expenses relate primarily to personnel expenses, lab supplies, fees to third party research consultants and compounds. Our development group leads the implementation of our clinical and regulatory strategies and prioritizes disease indications in which our compounds may be studied in clinical trials. “Development” expenses relate primarily to clinical trials, personnel expenses, lab supplies and fees to third party research consultants. “Other” expenses primarily consist of allocated facilities costs and allocated stock based compensation expense relating to personnel in research and development groups.

 

In addition to reviewing the three categories of research and development expense described in the preceding paragraph, we principally consider qualitative factors in making decisions regarding our research and development programs, which include enrollment in clinical trials and the results thereof, the clinical and commercial potential for our drug candidates and competitive dynamics. We also make our research and development decisions in the context of our overall business strategy, which includes the evaluation of potential collaborations for the development of our drug candidates.

 

The following table presents our total research and development expense by category (in thousands).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended 

 

Nine Months Ended 

 

 

 

 

 

 

September 30, 

 

September 30, 

 

From January 1, 2007*

 

 

    

2015

    

2014

    

2015

    

2014

    

to September 30, 2015

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Categories:

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

Research

 

$

5,050

 

$

4,579

 

$

15,853

 

$

14,336

 

$

190,448

 

Development

 

 

6,865

 

 

6,150

 

 

19,022

 

 

22,359

 

 

276,316

 

Other

 

 

3,586

 

 

5,422

 

 

11,387

 

 

16,388

 

 

205,819

 

 

 

$

15,501

 

$

16,151

 

$

46,262

 

$

53,083

 

$

672,583

 


*We started tracking research and development expense by category on January 1, 2007.

 

“Other” expenses mainly represent allocated facilities costs of approximately $2.6 million and $4.3 million for the three months ended September 30, 2015 and 2014, respectively, and allocated stock-based compensation expenses of approximately $966,000 and $1.2 million for the three months ended September 30, 2015 and 2014, respectively. For the nine months ended September 30, 2015 and 2014, allocated facilities costs were approximately $8.2 million and $12.7 million, respectively, and allocated stock-based compensation expenses were approximately $3.2 million and $3.7 million, respectively. Allocated facilities costs for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015 is net of

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sublease income of $703,000 and $2.1 million, respectively, and our subtenant’s share of facilities operating expense of $418,000 and $1.3 million, respectively.

 

For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015, a major portion of our total research and development expense was associated with our ITP and IgAN programs, salaries of our research and development personnel, and allocated facilities costs. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2014, a major portion of our total research and development expense was associated with the research and development expense for our SYK inhibitor program in ITP, as well as allocated facilities costs and salaries of our research and development personnel.    

 

We do not have reliable estimates regarding the timing of our clinical trials. Preclinical testing and clinical development are long, expensive and uncertain processes. In general, biopharmaceutical development involves a series of steps, beginning with identification of a potential target and including, among others, proof of concept in animals and Phase 1, 2 and 3 clinical trials in humans. Significant delays in clinical testing could materially impact our product development costs and timing of completion of the clinical trials. We do not know whether planned clinical trials will begin on time, will need to be halted or revamped or will be completed on schedule, or at all. Clinical trials can be delayed for a variety of reasons, including delays in obtaining regulatory approval to commence a trial, delays from scale up, delays in reaching agreement on acceptable clinical trial agreement terms with prospective clinical sites, delays in obtaining institutional review board approval to conduct a clinical trial at a prospective clinical site or delays in recruiting subjects to participate in a clinical trial.

 

We currently do not have reliable estimates of total costs for a particular drug candidate to reach the market. Our potential products are subject to a lengthy and uncertain regulatory process that may involve unanticipated additional clinical trials and may not result in receipt of the necessary regulatory approvals. Failure to receive the necessary regulatory approvals would prevent us from commercializing the product candidates affected. In addition, clinical trials of our potential products may fail to demonstrate safety and efficacy, which could prevent or significantly delay regulatory approval.

 

For further discussion on research and development activities, see “Research and Development Expense” under “Results of Operations” below.

 

Critical Accounting Policies and the Use of Estimates

 

Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based upon our financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (U.S. GAAP). The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. We evaluate our estimates, including those related to our sublease agreement (including the determination of discount rate used), stock based compensation, impairment issues, the estimated useful life of assets, and estimated accruals, particularly research and development accruals, on an on-going basis. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. We believe that there have been no significant changes in our critical accounting policies and estimates disclosed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2014, as filed with the SEC, except for the following:

 

Revenue Recognition

 

We present revenue from our collaboration arrangements under the FASB ASC 808, Collaboration Arrangements. The terms of these agreements generally contain multiple elements, or deliverables, which may include (i) granting of license rights to our program, (ii) participation in a joint research committee, (iii) performance of research activities, and (iv) clinical supply and materials. The payments we receive under these arrangements typically include one or more of the following: non-refundable, up-front fees; funding of research and/or development efforts; contingent fees due upon the achievement of specified triggering events; and/or royalties on future product sales. We recognize revenue for the performance of services or the delivery of products when each of the following four criteria is met: (i)

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persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists; (ii) products are delivered or as services are rendered; (iii) the sales price is fixed or determinable; and (iv) collectability is reasonably assured.

 

Our revenue arrangements with multiple elements are evaluated under FASB ASC 605 25, Multiple Element Arrangements (as amended by ASU No. 2009-13), and are divided into separate units of accounting if certain criteria are met, including whether the deliverables have stand-alone value, based on the relevant facts and circumstances for each arrangement. The consideration we receive under collaboration arrangements is allocated among the separate units of accounting based on the selling price hierarchy, and the applicable revenue recognition criteria is applied to each of the separate units. We make significant judgments and estimates in the allocation of the consideration among the deliverables under the agreement, as well as the determination of the periods the units will be delivered to our collaborators. If there are deliverables in an arrangement that are not separable from other aspects of the contractual relationship, they are treated as a combined unit of accounting, with the allocated revenue for the combined unit recognized in a manner consistent with the revenue recognition applicable to the final deliverable in the combined unit. Payments received prior to satisfying the relevant revenue recognition criteria are recorded as deferred revenue in the accompanying balance sheets and recognized as revenue when the revenue recognition criteria are met.

 

We typically receive non-refundable, up-front payments when licensing our intellectual property, which often occurs in conjunction with a research and development agreement. If we believe that the license to our intellectual property has stand-alone value, we generally recognize revenue attributed to the license upon delivery provided that there are no future performance requirements for use of the license. When we believe that the license to our intellectual property does not have stand-alone value, we would recognize revenue attributed to the license ratably from the effective date of the agreement or the delivery of the license up to the estimated completion date of the undelivered performance obligation. Revenues related to the research services with our corporate collaborators are recognized as research services are performed over the related research period. Under these agreements, we are required to perform research activities as specified in the agreement. The payments received are not refundable and are based on a contractual cost per full-time equivalent employee working on the project.  Our research and development expenses under the collaborative research agreements approximate the revenue recognized under such agreements over the research period. 

 

Revenues associated with substantive, at‑risk milestones pursuant to collaborative agreements are recognized upon achievement of the milestones. We consider a milestone to be substantive at the inception of the arrangement if it is commensurate with either our performance to achieve the milestone or the enhancement of the value of the delivered item as a result of a specific outcome resulting from our performance to achieve the milestone, it relates solely to past performance and it is reasonable relative to all of the deliverables and payment terms within the arrangement. Non‑refundable contingent future amounts receivable in connection with future events specified in collaboration agreements that are not considered milestones such as payments contingent solely upon the passage of time or the result of our collaborator's performance will be recognized as revenue when the recognition criteria discussed above are met.

 

Results of Operations

 

Three and Nine Months Ended September 30, 2015 and 2014

 

Revenues

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended 

 

 

 

 

Nine Months Ended 

 

 

 

 

 

 

September 30, 

 

Aggregate

 

September 30, 

 

Aggregate

 

 

    

2015

    

2014

    

Change

    

2015

    

2014

    

Change

 

 

 

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

 

 

 

Contract revenues from collaborations

 

$

12,996

 

$

 —

 

$

12,996

 

$

20,358

 

$

 —

 

$

20,358

 

 

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Revenues by collaborators were as follows:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended 

 

 

 

 

Nine Months Ended 

 

 

 

 

 

September 30, 

 

Aggregate

 

September 30, 

 

Aggregate

 

    

2015

    

2014

    

Change

    

2015

    

2014

    

Change

 

 

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

 

 

Aclaris

 

$

8,000

 

$

 —

 

$

8,000

 

$

8,000

 

$

 —

 

$

8,000

BMS

 

 

4,996

 

 

 —

 

 

4,996

 

 

12,358

 

 

 —

 

 

12,358

Total

 

$

12,996

 

$

 —

 

$

12,996

 

$

20,358

 

$

 —

 

$

20,358

 

Contract revenues from collaborations of $13.0 million in the three months ended September 30, 2015 were comprised of the $8.0 million upfront payment received from Aclaris in September 2015, the amortization of the $30.0 million upfront payment from BMS of $4.8 million and the full time equivalent (FTE) fees we earned of $163,000 related to our performance of research activities in connection with the collaboration agreement with BMS. Contract revenues from collaborations of $20.4 million in the nine months ended September 30, 2015 were comprised of the $8.0 million upfront payment received from Aclaris in September 2015, the amortization of the $30.0 million upfront payment from BMS of $11.7 million and the FTE fees we earned from BMS of $619,000. There were no contract revenues from collaborations during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2014. As of September 30, 2015, deferred revenue related to the $30.0 million upfront payment from BMS was $18.3 million. Based on current estimate, we expect this amount to be fully recognized as revenue in the third quarter of 2016. We had no deferred revenue as of September 30, 2014. Our potential future revenues may include payments from our current partners and from new partners with whom we enter into agreements in the future, if any, the timing and amount of which is unknown at this time.

 

Research and Development Expense

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended 

 

 

 

 

Nine Months Ended 

 

 

 

 

 

 

September 30, 

 

Aggregate

 

September 30, 

 

Aggregate

 

 

    

2015

 

2014

    

Change

    

2015

 

2014

    

Change

 

 

 

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

 

 

 

Research and development expense

 

$

15,501

    

$

16,151

 

$

(650)

 

$

46,262

    

$

53,083

 

$

(6,821)

 

Stock-based compensation expense included in research and development expense

 

$

966

 

$

1,151

 

$

(185)

 

$

3,182

 

$

3,654

 

$

(472)

 

 

The decrease in research and development expense for the three months ended September 30, 2015, compared to the same period in 2014, was primarily due to the decrease in facilities costs resulting from the sublease agreement executed in December 2014, partially offset by the increase in research and development costs related to our Phase 3 clinical program for fostamatinib in ITP. The decrease in research and development expense for the nine months ended September 30, 2015, compared to the same period in 2014, was primarily due the decrease in facilities costs resulting from the effects of the sublease agreement executed in December 2014, as well as the completion in 2014 of a Phase 2 study of R348 in dry eye and the discontinuation of our indirect AMPK activator program, R118, partially offset by the increase in research and development costs related to our Phase 3 clinical program in ITPWe expect that our research and development expense will increase through the remainder of 2015, compared to each of the prior three quarters due to the continued progress of our Phase 3 clinical trials in ITP and Phase 2 clinical trials in IgAN and ocular GvHD.

 

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General and Administrative Expense

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended 

 

 

 

 

Nine Months Ended 

 

 

 

 

 

 

September 30, 

 

Aggregate

 

September 30, 

 

Aggregate

 

 

    

2015

 

2014

    

Change

    

2015

 

2014

    

Change

 

 

 

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

 

 

 

General and administrative expense

 

$

4,276

    

$

4,889

 

$

(613)

 

$

13,092

    

$

15,798

 

$

(2,706)

 

Stock-based compensation expense included in general and administrative expense

 

$

849

 

$

929

 

$

(80)

 

$

2,596

 

$

2,922

 

$

(326)

 

 

The decrease in general and administrative expense for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015, compared to the same periods in 2014, was primarily due to the decrease in facilities costs as a result of the sublease agreement executed in December 2014, and decrease in personnel costs due to the retirement of our former CEO in December 2014.

 

Interest Income

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended 

 

 

 

Nine Months Ended 

 

 

 

 

 

September 30, 

 

Aggregate

 

September 30, 

 

Aggregate

 

 

    

2015

 

2014

    

Change

    

2015

 

2014

    

Change

 

 

 

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

 

 

 

Interest income

 

$

54

    

$

54

 

$

 —

 

$

162

    

$

199

 

$

(37)

 

 

Interest income results from our interest-bearing cash and investment balances. Interest income for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015, as compared to the same periods in 2014 were relatively flat.

 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

Cash Requirements

 

From inception, we have financed our operations primarily through sales of equity securities, contract payments under our collaboration agreements and equipment financing arrangements. We have consumed substantial amounts of capital to date as we continue our research and development activities, including preclinical studies and clinical trials.

 

As of September 30, 2015, we had approximately $134.4 million in cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments, as compared to approximately $143.2 million as of December 31, 2014, a decrease of approximately $8.8 million. The decrease was primarily attributable to the payments associated with funding our operating expenses for the nine months ended September 30, 2015, partially offset by the $30.0 million and $8.0 million upfront payments received pursuant to our agreements with BMS and Aclaris, respectively. In December 2014, we entered into a sublease agreement with an unrelated third party to occupy a portion of our research and office space pursuant to which we expect to receive over $10.0 million of sublease income and reimbursement from the subtenant’s share of facilities operating expenses over the remaining term of the sublease. In August 2015, we entered into a Controlled Equity OfferingSM Sales Agreement with Cantor, pursuant to which we may sell, through Cantor, up to an aggregate of $30.0 million in shares of our common stock. As of September 30, 2015, we have not made any sales under the Sales Agreement. We believe that our existing capital resources will be sufficient to support our current and projected funding requirements into the second quarter of 2017. We have based this estimate on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could utilize our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect. Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with the development of our product candidates and other research and development activities, including risks and uncertainties that could impact the rate of progress of our development activities, we are unable to estimate with certainty the amounts of increased capital outlays and operating expenditures associated with our current and anticipated clinical trials and other research and development activities.

 

Our operations will require significant additional funding for the foreseeable future. Unless and until we are able to generate a sufficient amount of product, royalty or milestone revenue, we expect to finance future cash needs through public and/or private offerings of equity securities, debt financings and/or collaboration and licensing

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arrangements, and to a much lesser extent through interest income earned on the investment of our excess cash balances and short term investments. With the exception of contingent and royalty payments that we may receive under our existing collaborations, we do not currently have any committed future funding. To the extent we raise additional capital by issuing equity securities, our stockholders could at that time experience substantial dilution. Any debt financing that we are able to obtain may involve operating covenants that restrict our business. To the extent that we raise additional funds through collaboration and licensing arrangements, we may be required to relinquish some of our rights to our technologies or product candidates, or grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us.

 

Our future funding requirements will depend upon many factors, including, but not limited to:

 

·

the progress and success of our clinical trials and preclinical activities (including studies and manufacture of materials) of our product candidates conducted by us;

 

·

the success of our corporate collaborations or license agreements;

 

·

the progress of research programs carried out by us;

 

·

any changes in the breadth of our research and development programs;

 

·

the ability to achieve the events identified in our collaborative agreements that trigger payments to us from our collaboration partners;

 

·

the progress of the research and development efforts of our collaborative partners;

 

·

our ability to manage our growth;

 

·

competing technological and market developments;

 

·