rigl_Current_Folio_10Q

Table of Contents 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 


 

FORM 10-Q

 

(Mark One)

 

 

 

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

FOR THE QUARTERLY PERIOD ENDED JUNE 30, 2016

 

OR

 

 

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM        TO        

 

Commission File Number 0-29889

 


 

Rigel Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

 

Delaware

 

94-3248524

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or

 

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

organization)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1180 Veterans Blvd.

 

 

South San Francisco, CA

 

94080

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

(Zip Code)

 

(650) 624-1100

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes   No 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes   No 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

 

 

 

Large accelerated filer

 

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

Smaller reporting company

(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)

 

 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes   No 

 

As of July 27, 2016, there were 94,589,643 shares of the registrant’s Common Stock outstanding.

 

 

 

 


 

Table of Contents 

RIGEL PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

QUARTERLY REPORT ON FORM 10-Q

FOR THE QUARTERLY PERIOD ENDED JUNE 30, 2016

 

INDEX

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Page

PART I 

FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

Item 1. 

Financial Statements

 

 

Condensed Balance Sheets — June 30, 2016 (Unaudited) and December 31, 2015

 

 

Condensed Statements of Operations (Unaudited) —three and six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2015

 

 

Condensed Statements of Comprehensive Loss (Unaudited) —three and six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2015

 

 

Condensed Statements of Cash Flows (Unaudited) —six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2015

 

 

Notes to Condensed Financial Statements (Unaudited)

 

Item 2. 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

17 

Item 3. 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

27 

Item 4. 

Controls and Procedures

 

27 

PART II 

OTHER INFORMATION

 

28 

Item 1. 

Legal Proceedings

 

28 

Item 1A. 

Risk Factors

 

28 

Item 2. 

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

 

44 

Item 3. 

Defaults Upon Senior Securities

 

44 

Item 4. 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

44 

Item 5. 

Other Information

 

45 

Item 6. 

Exhibits

 

46 

 

 

 

 

Signatures 

 

 

47 

 

 

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PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

Item 1.Financial Statements

 

RIGEL PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

CONDENSED BALANCE SHEETS

(In thousands)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 30, 

 

December 31, 

 

 

 

2016

    

2015(1)

 

 

 

(unaudited)

 

 

 

 

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

24,946

 

$

43,456

 

Short-term investments

 

 

69,994

 

 

82,820

 

Accounts receivable

 

 

95

 

 

203

 

Prepaid and other current assets

 

 

1,862

 

 

2,545

 

Total current assets

 

 

96,897

 

 

129,024

 

Property and equipment, net

 

 

1,581

 

 

1,613

 

Other assets

 

 

842

 

 

1,110

 

 

 

$

99,320

 

$

131,747

 

Liabilities and stockholders’ equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable

 

$

1,506

 

$

2,763

 

Accrued compensation

 

 

3,119

 

 

6,251

 

Accrued research and development

 

 

6,702

 

 

4,953

 

Other accrued liabilities

 

 

1,269

 

 

1,133

 

Deferred revenue

 

 

3,760

 

 

13,427

 

Deferred liability – sublease, current portion

 

 

3,112

 

 

3,005

 

Deferred rent, current portion

 

 

2,533

 

 

2,264

 

Total current liabilities

 

 

22,001

 

 

33,796

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Long-term portion of deferred liability – sublease

 

 

1,877

 

 

3,460

 

Long-term portion of deferred rent

 

 

1,707

 

 

3,083

 

Other long-term liabilities

 

 

15

 

 

27

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Commitments

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders’ equity:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preferred stock

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

Common stock

 

 

95

 

 

91

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

1,096,215

 

 

1,082,980

 

Accumulated other comprehensive gain (loss)

 

 

53

 

 

(44)

 

Accumulated deficit

 

 

(1,022,643)

 

 

(991,646)

 

Total stockholders’ equity

 

 

73,720

 

 

91,381

 

 

 

$

99,320

 

$

131,747

 

 


(1)

The balance sheet at December 31, 2015 has been derived from the audited financial statements included in Rigel’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2015.

 

See Accompanying Notes.

 

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RIGEL PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

CONDENSED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS

(In thousands, except per share amounts)

(unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended June 30, 

 

Six Months Ended June 30, 

 

 

    

2016

    

2015

    

2016

    

2015

 

Contract revenues from collaborations

 

$

8,594

 

$

5,184

 

$

13,623

 

$

7,362

 

Costs and expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

 

17,468

 

 

15,059

 

 

35,641

 

 

30,761

 

General and administrative

 

 

4,774

 

 

4,099

 

 

9,197

 

 

8,816

 

Total costs and expenses

 

 

22,242

 

 

19,158

 

 

44,838

 

 

39,577

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(13,648)

 

 

(13,974)

 

 

(31,215)

 

 

(32,215)

 

Interest income

 

 

115

 

 

62

 

 

218

 

 

110

 

Net loss

 

$

(13,533)

 

$

(13,912)

 

$

(30,997)

 

$

(32,105)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss per share, basic and diluted

 

$

(0.15)

 

$

(0.16)

 

$

(0.34)

 

$

(0.36)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Weighted average shares used in computing net loss per share, basic and diluted

 

 

92,495

 

 

88,137

 

 

91,525

 

 

88,090

 

 

See Accompanying Notes.

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RIGEL PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

CONDENSED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE LOSS

(In thousands)

(unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended June 30, 

 

Six Months Ended June 30, 

 

 

    

2016

    

2015

    

2016

    

2015

 

Net loss

 

$

(13,533)

 

$

(13,912)

 

$

(30,997)

 

$

(32,105)

 

Other comprehensive income (loss):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net unrealized gain (loss) on short-term investments

 

 

4

 

 

(6)

 

 

97

 

 

18

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Comprehensive loss

 

$

(13,529)

 

$

(13,918)

 

$

(30,900)

 

$

(32,087)

 

 

See Accompanying Notes.

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RIGEL PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

CONDENSED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

(In thousands)

(unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Six Months Ended June 30, 

 

 

 

2016

    

2015

 

Operating activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(30,997)

 

$

(32,105)

 

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Depreciation and amortization

 

 

584

 

 

814

 

Stock-based compensation expense

 

 

3,452

 

 

3,963

 

Changes in assets and liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts receivable

 

 

108

 

 

5,400

 

Prepaid and other current assets

 

 

683

 

 

398

 

Other assets

 

 

88

 

 

68

 

Accounts payable

 

 

(1,263)

 

 

(517)

 

Accrued compensation

 

 

(3,132)

 

 

1,168

 

Accrued research and development

 

 

1,749

 

 

300

 

Other accrued liabilities

 

 

136

 

 

1

 

Deferred revenue

 

 

(9,667)

 

 

23,095

 

Deferred rent and other long term liabilities

 

 

(2,595)

 

 

(2,744)

 

Net cash used in operating activities

 

 

(40,854)

 

 

(159)

 

Investing activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Purchases of short-term investments

 

 

(67,895)

 

 

(82,798)

 

Maturities of short-term investments

 

 

80,818

 

 

84,120

 

Capital expenditures

 

 

(546)

 

 

(105)

 

Net cash provided by investing activities

 

 

12,377

 

 

1,217

 

Financing activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net proceeds from issuances of common stock upon exercise of options and participation in employee stock purchase plan

 

 

618

 

 

1,029

 

Proceeds from sale and issuance of common stock, net of offering costs

 

 

9,349

 

 

 —

 

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

 

9,967

 

 

1,029

 

Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents

 

 

(18,510)

 

 

2,087

 

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period

 

 

43,456

 

 

15,203

 

Cash and cash equivalents at end of period

 

$

24,946

 

$

17,290

 

 

 

See Accompanying Notes.

 

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Rigel Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Notes to Condensed Financial Statements

(unaudited)

 

In this report, “Rigel,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Rigel Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

 

1.Nature of Operations

 

We were incorporated in the state of Delaware on June 14, 1996. We are engaged in the discovery and development of novel, targeted drug candidates in the therapeutic areas of immunology, oncology and immuno-oncology.

 

2.Basis of Presentation

 

Our accompanying unaudited condensed financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (U.S. GAAP), for interim financial information and pursuant to the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (Securities Act). Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and notes required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements. These unaudited condensed financial statements include only normal and recurring adjustments that we believe are necessary to fairly state our financial position and the results of our operations and cash flows. Interim-period results are not necessarily indicative of results of operations or cash flows for a full-year or any subsequent interim period. The balance sheet at December 31, 2015 has been derived from audited financial statements at that date, but does not include all disclosures required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements. Because all of the disclosures required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements are not included herein, these interim unaudited condensed financial statements and the notes accompanying them should be read in conjunction with our audited financial statements and the notes thereto included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2015.

 

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results could differ from these estimates.

 

3.Recent Accounting Pronouncements

 

In August 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standard Update (ASU) No. 2014-15—Disclosure of Uncertainties about an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern, under Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) Subtopic 205-40, Presentation of Financial Statements—Going Concern. ASU No. 2014-15 provides guidance about management’s responsibility to evaluate whether there is substantial doubt about an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern and to provide related footnote disclosures. Management’s evaluation should be based on relevant conditions and events that are known and reasonably knowable at the date that the financial statements are issued (or at the date that the financial statements are available to be issued when applicable). Substantial doubt about an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern exists when relevant conditions and events, considered in the aggregate, indicate that it is probable that the entity will be unable to meet its obligations as they become due within one year after the date that the financial statements are issued (or available to be issued). ASU No. 2014-15 is effective for the annual period ending after December 15, 2016 and early adoption is permitted. We plan to adopt this new standard in our annual financial statements for the year ending December 31, 2016. We will continue to evaluate the guidance under ASU No. 2014-15 and present the required disclosures within our financial statements at the time of adoption. The actual impact will be dependent upon our liquidity and the nature or significance of future events or conditions that exist upon the adoption of this new standard.

 

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In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09—Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which supersedes the revenue recognition requirements under ASC Topic 605, Revenue Recognition, and most industry-specific guidance under the ASC. The core principle of ASU No. 2014-09 is that an entity should recognize revenue when it transfers promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. ASU No. 2014-09 defines a five step process to achieve this core principle and, in doing so, it is possible more judgment and estimates may be required within the revenue recognition process than required under existing U.S. GAAP including identifying performance obligations in the contract, estimating the amount of variable consideration to include in the transaction price and allocating the transaction price to each separate performance obligation. ASU No. 2014-09 also requires additional disclosures to enable users of financial statements to understand the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from customer contracts. ASU No. 2014-09 allows for either full retrospective or modified retrospective adoption, and we have not yet determined which approach we will apply. In July 2015, the FASB deferred by one year the effective date of ASU No. 2014-09 with the new effective date beginning after December 15, 2017, and the interim periods within that year and will allow early adoption for all entities as of the original effective date for public business entities, which was annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016. We plan to adopt this new standard on January 1, 2018. We are currently evaluating the potential impact of the adoption of ASU No. 2014-09 on our financial statements and cannot estimate the impact of adoption at this time.

 

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02—Leases, which is aimed at making leasing activities more transparent, and requires substantially all leases be recognized by lessees on their balance sheet as a right-of-use asset and corresponding lease liability, including leases currently accounted for as operating leases. The guidance is effective for all interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted. We plan to adopt this new standard on January 1, 2019.  We are currently evaluating the potential impact of the adoption of ASU No. 2016-02 on our financial statements and cannot estimate the impact of adoption at this time.

 

In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09—Stock Compensation, which is intended to simplify several aspects of the accounting for share-based payment award transactions, including the income tax consequences, an option to recognize gross stock compensation expense with actual forfeitures recognized as they occur, as well as certain classifications on the statement of cash flows.  The guidance will be effective for the fiscal year beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within that year. We plan to adopt this new standard on January 1, 2017. We are currently evaluating the potential impact of the adoption of ASU No. 2016-09 on our financial statements and cannot estimate the impact of adoption at this time.

 

4. Stock Award Plans

 

We have three stock option plans, our 2011 Equity Incentive Plan (2011 Plan), 2000 Equity Incentive Plan (2000 Plan) and 2000 Non-Employee Directors’ Stock Option Plan (Directors’ Plan), that provide for granting to our officers, directors and all other employees and consultants options to purchase shares of our common stock. We also have our Employee Stock Purchase Plan (Purchase Plan), wherein eligible employees can purchase shares of our common stock at a price per share equal to the lesser of 85% of the fair market value on the first day of the offering period or 85% of the fair market value on the purchase date. The fair value of each option award is estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model which considered our stock price, as well as assumptions regarding a number of complex and subjective variables. These variables include, but are not limited to, volatility, expected term, risk-free interest rate and dividends. We estimate volatility over the expected term of the option using historical share price performance. For expected term, we take into consideration our historical data of options exercised, cancelled and expired. The risk-free rate is based on the U.S. Treasury constant maturity rate. We have not paid and do not expect to pay dividends in the foreseeable future. In order to calculate stock-based compensation expense, we also estimate the forfeiture rate using our historical experience with options that cancel before they vest. We review our forfeiture rates each quarter and make any necessary changes to our estimates. We use the straight-line attribution method over the requisite employee service period for the entire award in recognizing stock-based compensation expense. 

 

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We granted performance-based stock options to purchase shares of our common stock which will vest upon the achievement of certain corporate performance-based milestones.  We determined the fair values of these performance-based stock options using the Black-Scholes option pricing model at the date of grant. For the portion of the performance-based stock options of which the performance condition is considered probable of achievement, we recognized stock-based compensation expense on the related estimated fair value of such options on a  straight-line basis from the date of grant up to the date when we expect the performance condition will be achieved. For the performance conditions that are not considered probable of achievement at the grant date or upon quarterly re-evaluation, prior to the event actually occurring, we will recognize the related stock-based compensation expense when the event occurs or when we can determine that the performance condition is probable of achievement.  In those cases, we will recognize the change in estimate at the time we determine the condition is probable of achievement (by recognizing stock-based compensation expense as cumulative catch-up adjustment as if we had estimated at the grant date that the performance condition would have been achieved) and recognize the remaining compensation cost up to the date when we expect the performance condition will be achieved, if any.

 

5.Net Loss Per Share

 

Basic net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period and the number of additional shares of common stock that would have been outstanding if potentially dilutive securities had been issued. Potentially dilutive securities include a warrant to purchase our common shares and stock options and shares issuable under our stock award plans. The dilutive effect of these potentially dilutive securities is reflected in diluted earnings per share by application of the treasury stock method. Under the treasury stock method, an increase in the fair market value of our common stock can result in a greater dilutive effect from potentially dilutive securities.

 

We had securities which could potentially dilute basic loss per share, but were excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share, as their effect would have been antidilutive. These securities consist of the following (in thousands):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended 

 

Six Months Ended 

 

 

 

June 30, 

 

June 30, 

 

 

 

2016

    

2015

 

2016

    

2015

 

Outstanding stock options

 

 

22,232

 

 

20,138

 

 

22,232

 

 

20,138

 

Warrant to purchase common stock

 

 

200

 

 

200

 

 

200

 

 

200

 

Purchase Plan

 

 

247

 

 

223

 

 

156

 

 

144

 

 

 

 

22,679

 

 

20,561

 

 

22,588

 

 

20,482

 

 

 

6.Stock-based Compensation

 

Total stock-based compensation expense related to all of our share-based payments that we recognized for the three and six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2015 were as follows (in thousands):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended 

 

Six Months Ended

 

 

 

June 30, 

 

June 30, 

 

 

 

2016

    

2015

 

2016

    

2015

 

Research and development

 

$

1,410

 

$

1,056

 

$

2,103

 

$

2,216

 

General and administrative

 

 

604

 

 

853

 

 

1,349

 

 

1,747

 

Total stock-based compensation expense

 

$

2,014

 

$

1,909

 

$

3,452

 

$

3,963

 

 

During the quarter ended June 30, 2016, we entered into severance agreements with certain employees. As part of the severance arrangements, we extended the date through which such former employees had the right to exercise their vested options.  In addition, we also accelerated the vesting of certain unvested stock options granted to a former employee.  As a result of these modifications, we recorded incremental stock-based compensation expense of $641,000 during the three and six months ended June 30, 2016. The incremental compensation expense was computed based on

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the fair values of the modified awards on the respective modification dates.  This amount is included as part of “Research and development expense” in the accompanying Condensed Statements of Operations.

 

The fair value of each option award is estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. We have segregated option awards into the following three homogenous groups for the purposes of determining fair values of options: officers and directors, all other employees, and consultants.

 

We determined weighted-average valuation assumptions separately for each of these groups as follows:

 

·

Volatility—We estimated volatility using our historical share price performance over the expected life of the option. We also considered other factors, such as implied volatility, our current clinical trials and other company activities that may affect the volatility of our stock in the future. We determined that at this time historical volatility is more indicative of our expected future stock performance than implied volatility.

 

·

Expected term—For options granted to consultants, we use the contractual term of the option, which is generally ten years, for the initial valuation of the option and the remaining contractual term of the option for the succeeding periods. We analyzed various historical data to determine the applicable expected term for each of the other option groups. This data included: (1) for exercised options, the term of the options from option grant date to exercise date; (2) for cancelled options, the term of the options from option grant date to cancellation date, excluding non-vested option forfeitures; and (3) for options that remained outstanding at the balance sheet date, the term of the options from option grant date to the end of the reporting period and the estimated remaining term of the options. The consideration and calculation of the above data gave us reasonable estimates of the expected term for each employee group. We also considered the vesting schedules of the options granted and factors surrounding exercise behavior of the option groups, our current market price and company activity that may affect our market price. In addition, we considered the optionee type (i.e., officers and directors or all other employees) and other factors that may affect the expected term of the option.

 

·

Risk-free interest rate—The risk-free interest rate is based on U.S. Treasury constant maturity rates with similar terms to the expected term of the options for each option group.

 

·

Dividend yield—The expected dividend yield is 0% as we have not paid and do not expect to pay dividends in the future.

 

Pursuant to FASB ASC 718, we are required to estimate the amount of expected forfeitures when calculating compensation costs. We estimated the forfeiture rate using our historical experience with non-vested options. We adjust our stock-based compensation expense as actual forfeitures occur, review our estimated forfeiture rates each quarter and make changes to our estimate as appropriate.

 

The following table summarizes the weighted-average assumptions relating to options granted pursuant to our equity incentive plans, including the performance-based stock option awards which will vest upon the achievement of a corporate performance-based milestone, for the three and six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2015:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended 

 

 

Six Months Ended 

 

 

 

 

June 30, 

 

 

June 30, 

 

 

 

    

2016

    

2015

    

    

2016

    

2015

 

    

Risk-free interest rate

 

1.5

%  

1.9

%  

 

1.7

%  

1.8

%

 

Expected term (in years)

 

7.0

 

7.0

 

 

6.4

 

6.5

 

 

Dividend yield

 

0.0

%  

0.0

%  

 

0.0

%  

0.0

%

 

Expected volatility

 

76.9

%  

66.9

%  

 

63.3

%  

65.1

%

 

 

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The exercise price of stock options is at the market price of our common stock on the date immediately preceding the date of grant. Options become exercisable at varying dates and generally expire 10 years from the date of grant.

 

We granted options to purchase 3,833,435 shares of common stock during the six months ended June 30, 2016, with a grant-date weighted-average fair value of $1.59 per share. Of the 3,833,435 common stock options granted, 1,015,000 shares were related to performance-based stock option awards.  865,000 shares of these performance-based stock option awards remained outstanding after the cancellation of the 150,000 shares granted to a former executive, effective July 1, 2016. The outstanding performance-based stock option awards options has a grant date fair value of $1.4 million and will vest upon the achievement of a corporate performance-based milestone. We did not consider the achievement of the corporate-based milestone as probable as of June 30, 2016. Accordingly, no stock-based compensation cost was recognized during the three and six months ended June 30, 2016 for these performance-based stock option awards.

 

We granted options to purchase 3,793,420 shares of common stock during the six months ended June 30, 2015, with a grant-date weighted-average fair value of $1.40 per share. Of the 3,793,420 common stock options granted, 1,175,000 shares were related to performance-based stock option awards which vested upon the achievement of a corporate performance-based milestone in the first quarter of 2016.

 

As of June 30, 2016, there was approximately $7.0 million of total unrecognized stock-based compensation cost, net of estimated forfeitures, related to all unvested options granted under our equity incentive plans. Of this amount, approximately $2.1 million of unrecognized stock compensation expense relate to the performance-based stock option awards, of which the underlying corporate performance-based milestone was not probable of achievement as of June 30, 2016.

 

At June 30, 2016, there were 2,108,340 shares of common stock available for future grant under our equity incentive plans and 11,977 options to purchase shares were exercised during the six months ended June 30, 2016.

 

Employee Stock Purchase Plan

 

Our Employee Stock Purchase Plan (Purchase Plan) permits eligible employees to purchase common stock at a discount through payroll deductions during defined offering periods. The price at which the stock is purchased is equal to the lesser of 85% of the fair market value of the common stock on the first day of the offering or 85% of the fair market value of our common stock on the purchase date. The initial offering period commenced on the effective date of our initial public offering.

 

The fair value of awards granted under our Purchase Plan is estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model, which uses weighted-average assumptions. Our Purchase Plan provides for a twenty-four month offering period comprised of four six-month purchase periods with a look-back option. A look-back option is a provision in our Purchase Plan under which eligible employees can purchase shares of our common stock at a price per share equal to the lesser of 85% of the fair market value on the first day of the offering period or 85% of the fair market value on the purchase date. Our Purchase Plan also includes a feature that provides for a new offering period to begin when the fair market value of our common stock on any purchase date during an offering period falls below the fair market value of our common stock on the first day of such offering period. This feature is called a “reset.” Participants are automatically enrolled in the new offering period. We had a “reset” on July 1, 2016 because the fair market value of our stock on June 30, 2016 was lower than the fair market value of our stock on January 5, 2015, the first day of the offering period. We applied modification accounting in accordance with ASC Topic No. 718, Stock Compensation, to determine the incremental fair value associated with this Purchase Plan “reset” and will recognize the related stock-based compensation expense according to FASB ASC Subtopic No. 718-50, Employee Share Purchase Plans. The total incremental fair value for this Purchase Plan “reset” was approximately $1.0 million and will be recognized from July 1, 2016 to June 30, 2018. 

 

As of June 30, 2016, there were approximately 2,689,635 shares reserved for future issuance under the Purchase Plan. The following table summarizes the weighted-average assumptions related to our Purchase Plan for the six months

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ended June 30, 2016 and 2015. Expected volatilities for our Purchase Plan are based on the historical volatility of our stock. Expected term represents the weighted-average of the purchase periods within the offering period. The risk-free interest rate for periods within the expected term is based on U.S. Treasury constant maturity rates.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Six Months Ended 

 

 

 

 

June 30, 

 

 

 

    

2016

    

2015

 

    

Risk-free interest rate

 

0.7

%  

0.6

%

 

Expected term (in years)

 

1.8

 

1.5

 

 

Dividend yield

 

0.0

%  

0.0

%

 

Expected volatility

 

61.5

%  

61.2

%

 

 

 

7.Research and Development Accruals

 

We have various contracts with third parties related to our research and development activities. Costs that are incurred but not billed to us as of the end of the period are accrued. We make estimates of the amounts incurred in each period based on the information available to us and our knowledge of the nature of the contractual activities generating such costs. Clinical trial contract expenses are accrued based on units of activity. Expenses related to other research and development contracts, such as research contracts, toxicology study contracts and manufacturing contracts are estimated to be incurred generally on a straight-line basis over the duration of the contracts. Raw materials and study materials purchased for us by third parties are expensed at the time of purchase.

 

8.Sponsored Research and License Agreements

 

We conduct research and development programs independently and in connection with our corporate collaborators. We are a party to a collaboration agreement with Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (BMS) for the discovery, development and commercialization of cancer immunotherapies based on our small molecule TGF beta receptor kinase inhibitors, as discussed below. Our participation in the collaboration is limited to the Joint Research Committee and the performance of research activities based on billable full-time equivalent fees as specified in the collaboration agreement. We do not have ongoing participation obligations under our agreements with Aclaris Therapeutics International Limited (Aclaris) for the development and commercialization of certain janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors for the treatment of alopecia areata and other dermatological conditions, AstraZeneca (AZ) for the development and commercialization of R256, an inhaled JAK inhibitor, BerGenBio AS (BerGenBio) for the development and commercialization of an oncology program, and Daiichi Sankyo (Daiichi) to pursue research related to a specific target from a novel class of drug targets called ligases. Under these agreements, which we entered into in the ordinary course of business, we received or may be entitled to receive upfront cash payments, progress dependent contingent payments on events achieved by such partners and royalties on any net sales of products sold by such partners under the agreements. Total future contingent payments to us under all of these current agreements could exceed $531.9 million if all potential product candidates achieved all of the payment triggering events under all of our current agreements (based on a single product candidate under each agreement). Of this amount, up to $148.8 million relates to the achievement of development events, up to $345.6 million relates to the achievement of regulatory events and up to $37.5 million relates to the achievement of certain commercial or launch events. This estimated future contingent amount does not include any estimated royalties that could be due to us if the partners successfully commercialize any of the licensed products.  Future events that may trigger payments to us under the agreements are based solely on our partners’ future efforts and achievements of specified development, regulatory and/or commercial events.

 

In October 2015, we entered into a non-exclusive license agreement with a third party, pursuant to which we received a payment in the single-digit millions in exchange for granting a non-exclusive license to certain limited intellectual property rights. We concluded that the granting of the license, which was fully delivered to such third party in the fourth quarter of 2015, represents the sole deliverable under this agreement. Accordingly, we recognized the payment as revenue during the fourth quarter of 2015.

 

In August 2015, we entered into a license agreement with Aclaris, pursuant to which Aclaris will have exclusive rights and will assume responsibility for the continued development of certain JAK inhibitor compounds for the

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treatment of alopecia areata and other dermatological conditions. Under the license agreement, we received a noncreditable and non-refundable upfront payment of $8.0 million in September 2015. We are also entitled to receive development and regulatory contingent fees that could exceed $80.0 million for a successful compound approved in certain indications. In addition, we are also eligible to receive tiered royalties on the net sales of any products under the agreement. We concluded that the granting of the license, which has been fully delivered to Aclaris in the third quarter of 2015, represents the sole deliverable under this agreement.  Accordingly, we recognized the $8.0 million payment as revenue during the third quarter of 2015.

 

In February 2015, we entered into a collaboration agreement with BMS for the discovery, development and commercialization of cancer immunotherapies based on our extensive portfolio of small molecule TGF beta receptor kinase inhibitors. Under the collaboration agreement, BMS will have exclusive rights and will be solely responsible for the clinical development and commercialization of any products. Pursuant to the collaboration agreement with BMS, we received a noncreditable and non-refundable upfront payment of $30.0 million in March 2015. We are also entitled to receive development and regulatory contingent fees that could exceed $309.0 million for a successful compound approved in certain indications. In addition, we are also eligible to receive tiered royalties on the net sales of any products from the collaboration. BMS shall also reimburse us for agreed upon costs based on a contractual cost per full-time equivalent employee in connection with the performance of research activities during the research term. Under the collaboration agreement, we were obligated to provide the following deliverables: (i) granting of license rights to our program, (ii) participation in the Joint Research Committee, and (iii) performance of research activities.  We concluded that these deliverables are a single unit of accounting as the license does not have stand-alone value apart from the other deliverables. Accordingly, the $30.0 million upfront payment is being recognized ratably as revenue from the effective date of the agreement through September 2016, the end of the estimated research term. We believe that straight-line recognition of this revenue is appropriate as the research is expected to be performed ratably over the research period. As of June 30, 2016, we were not notified by BMS of its intention to extend the estimated research term under which we will perform research activities.  However, BMS does continue to evaluate compounds from the extensive portfolio under the agreement, on its own, for designation of a compound as an early candidate nomination. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2016, we recognized revenue of $4.8 million and $9.7 million, respectively, relating to the upfront payment and $95,000 and $290,000, respectively, relating to the research activities we performed. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2015, we recognized revenue of $4.8 million and $6.9 million, respectively, relating to the upfront payment and $350,000 and $456,000, respectively, relating to the research activities we performed. As of June 30, 2016, deferred revenue related to the $30.0 million upfront payment was $3.8 million, which will be fully recognized as revenue in the third quarter of 2016.  

 

In June 2011, we entered into an exclusive license agreement with BerGenBio for the development and commercialization of an oncology program. BerGenBio is responsible for all activities it wishes to perform under the license we granted to it.  In June 2016, we received contingent payments of $1.7 million relating to a time-based non-refundable fee and $2.0 million relating to BerGenBio’s exercise of certain option rights before the prescription period to exercise the rights expired. All deliverables under the agreement had been previously delivered, as such, the above payments of $3.7 million triggered by the above time-based and contingent events were recognized as revenue in the second quarter of 2016.

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9.Cash, Cash Equivalents and Short-Term Investments

 

Cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments consisted of the following (in thousands):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 30, 

 

December 31, 

 

 

 

2016

    

2015

 

Cash

 

$

2,380

 

$

2,118

 

Money market funds

 

 

15,417

 

 

26,291

 

U. S. treasury bills

 

 

8,314

 

 

9,048

 

Government-sponsored enterprise securities

 

 

20,684

 

 

48,613

 

Corporate bonds and commercial paper

 

 

48,145

 

 

40,206

 

 

 

$

94,940

 

$

126,276

 

Reported as:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

24,946

 

$

43,456

 

Short-term investments

 

 

69,994

 

 

82,820

 

 

 

$

94,940

 

$

126,276

 

 

Cash equivalents and short-term investments include the following securities with gross unrealized gains and losses (in thousands):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 

 

    

Gross

    

Gross

    

 

 

 

 

 

Amortized

 

Unrealized

 

Unrealized

 

 

 

 

June 30, 2016

 

Cost

 

Gains

 

Losses

 

Fair Value

 

U. S. treasury bills

 

$

8,303

 

$

11

 

$

 —

 

$

8,314

 

Government-sponsored enterprise securities

 

 

20,671

 

 

13

 

 

 —

 

 

20,684

 

Corporate bonds and commercial paper

 

 

48,116

 

 

31

 

 

(2)

 

 

48,145

 

Total

 

$

77,090

 

$

55

 

$

(2)

 

$

77,143

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 

 

    

Gross

    

Gross

    

 

 

 

 

 

Amortized

 

Unrealized

 

Unrealized

 

 

 

 

December 31, 2015

 

Cost

 

Gains

 

Losses

 

Fair Value

 

U. S. treasury bills

 

$

9,061

 

$

 —

 

$

(13)

 

$

9,048

 

Government-sponsored enterprise securities

 

 

48,643

 

 

1

 

 

(31)

 

 

48,613

 

Corporate bonds and commercial paper

 

 

40,207

 

 

11

 

 

(12)

 

 

40,206

 

Total

 

$

97,911

 

$

12

 

$

(56)

 

$

97,867

 

 

 As of June 30, 2016, our cash equivalents and short-term investments, which have contractual maturities within one year, had a weighted-average time to maturity of approximately 118 days. We view our short-term investments portfolio as available for use in current operations. Accordingly, we have classified our investments as short-term investments. We have the ability to hold all investments as of June 30, 2016 through their respective maturity dates. At June 30, 2016, we had no investments that had been in a continuous unrealized loss position for more than 12 months.  As of June 30, 2016, a total of 8 individual securities had been in an unrealized loss position for 12 months or less, and the losses were determined to be temporary. The gross unrealized losses above were caused by interest rate increases. No significant facts or circumstances have arisen to indicate that there has been any deterioration in the creditworthiness of the issuers of the securities held by us. Based on our review of these securities, including the assessment of the duration and severity of the unrealized losses and our ability and intent to hold the investments until maturity, there were no other-than-temporary impairments for these securities at June 30, 2016.

 

The following table shows the fair value and gross unrealized losses of our investments in individual securities that are in an unrealized loss position, aggregated by investment category (in thousands):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 30, 2016

    

Fair Value

    

Unrealized Losses

 

Corporate bonds and commercial paper

 

$

4,250

 

$

(2)

 

 

 

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10.Fair Value

 

Under FASB ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures, fair value is defined as the price at which an asset could be exchanged or a liability transferred in a transaction between knowledgeable, willing parties in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability. Where available, fair value is based on observable market prices or parameters or derived from such prices or parameters. Where observable prices or parameters are not available, valuation models are applied.

 

Assets and liabilities recorded at fair value in our financial statements are categorized based upon the level of judgment associated with the inputs used to measure their fair value. Hierarchical levels directly related to the amount of subjectivity associated with the inputs to fair valuation of these assets and liabilities, are as follows:

 

Level 1—Inputs are unadjusted, quoted prices in active markets for identical assets at the reporting date. Active markets are those in which transactions for the asset or liability occur in sufficient frequency and volume to provide pricing information on an ongoing basis.

 

The fair valued assets we hold that are generally included under this Level 1 are money market securities where fair value is based on publicly quoted prices.

 

Level 2—Inputs, other than quoted prices included in Level 1, that are either directly or indirectly observable for the asset or liability through correlation with market data at the reporting date and for the duration of the instrument’s anticipated life.

 

The fair valued assets we hold that are generally assessed under Level 2 included government-sponsored enterprise securities, U.S. treasury bills and corporate bonds and commercial paper. We utilize third party pricing services in developing fair value measurements where fair value is based on valuation methodologies such as models using observable market inputs, including benchmark yields, reported trades, broker/dealer quotes, bids, offers and other reference data. We use quotes from external pricing service providers and other on-line quotation systems to verify the fair value of investments provided by our third party pricing service providers. We review independent auditor’s reports from our third party pricing service providers particularly regarding the controls over pricing and valuation of financial instruments and ensure that our internal controls address certain control deficiencies, if any, and complementary user entity controls are in place.

 

Level 3—Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities and which reflect management’s best estimate of what market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability at the reporting date. Consideration is given to the risk inherent in the valuation technique and the risk inherent in the inputs to the model.

 

We do not have fair valued assets classified under Level 3.

 

Fair Value on a Recurring Basis

 

Financial assets measured at fair value on a recurring basis are categorized in the tables below based upon the lowest level of significant input to the valuations (in thousands):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assets at Fair Value as of June 30, 2016

 

 

    

Level 1

    

Level 2

    

Level 3

    

Total

 

Money market funds

 

$

15,417

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

$

15,417

 

U. S. treasury bills

 

 

 —

 

 

8,314

 

 

 —

 

 

8,314

 

Government-sponsored enterprise securities

 

 

 —

 

 

20,684

 

 

 —

 

 

20,684

 

Corporate bonds and commercial paper

 

 

 —

 

 

48,145

 

 

 —

 

 

48,145

 

Total

 

$

15,417

 

$

77,143

 

$

 —

 

$

92,560

 

 

 

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Assets at Fair Value as of December 31, 2015

 

 

    

Level 1

    

Level 2

    

Level 3

    

Total

 

Money market funds

 

$

26,291

 

$

 

$

 —

 

$

26,291

 

U. S. treasury bills

 

 

 

 

9,048

 

 

 —

 

 

9,048

 

Government-sponsored enterprise securities

 

 

 

 

48,613

 

 

 —

 

 

48,613

 

Corporate bonds and commercial paper

 

 

 

 

40,206

 

 

 —

 

 

40,206

 

Total

 

$

26,291

 

$

97,867

 

$

 —

 

$

124,158

 

 

 

11.Sublease Agreement

 

In December 2014, we entered into a sublease agreement with an unrelated third party to occupy a portion of our research and office space. We expect to receive approximately $4.4 million in future sublease income (excluding our subtenant’s share of facilities operating expenses) over the remaining term of the sublease. In connection with this sublease, we recognized a loss on sublease of $9.3 million during the fourth quarter of 2014.  We record rent expense on a straight-line basis for our lease, net of sublease income, wherein such arrangements contain scheduled rent increases over the term of the lease and sublease, respectively.  For our sublease arrangement which we classified as an operating lease, our loss on the sublease was comprised of the present value of our future payments to our landlord less the present value of our future rent payments expected from our subtenant over the term of the sublease.  The liability arising from this sublease agreement was determined using a credit-adjusted risk-free rate to discount the estimated future net cash flows.  The changes in the liability related to the sublease agreement for the six months ended June 30, 2016 were as follows (in thousands):

 

 

 

 

 

 

Balance at January 1, 2016

    

$

6,465

 

Accretion of deferred liability

 

 

205

 

Amortization of deferred liability

 

 

(1,681)

 

Balance at June 30, 2016

 

$

4,989

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12.Controlled Equity Offering

 

In August 2015, we entered into a Controlled Equity OfferingSM Sales Agreement (Sales Agreement) with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. (Cantor), as sales agent, pursuant to which we may sell, through Cantor, up to an aggregate of $30.0 million in shares of our common stock. All sales of our common stock will be made pursuant to a shelf registration statement that was declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) on July 13, 2015.  Cantor is acting as our sole sales agent for any sales made under the Sales Agreement for a low single-digit commission on gross proceeds.  The common stock is sold at prevailing market prices at the time of the sale.  Unless otherwise terminated earlier, the Sales Agreement continues until all shares available under the agreement have been sold.  During the six months ended June 30, 2016, 3,711,096 shares of common stock were sold under the Sales Agreement, with an aggregate net proceeds of $9.3 million. As of June 30, 2016, 5,433,408 shares of our common stock had been issued under the Sales Agreement with aggregate net proceeds of $14.9 million.  As of June 30, 2016, we had approximately $14.7 million of remaining common stock registered for sale under the Sales Agreement.

 

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Item 2.Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

This discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with our financial statements and the accompanying notes included in this report and the audited financial statements and accompanying notes included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2015. Operating results for the three and six months ended June 30, 2016 are not necessarily indicative of results that may occur in future interim periods or for the full fiscal year.

 

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains statements indicating expectations about future performance and other forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act, that involve risks and uncertainties. We usually use words such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “intend,” or the negative of these terms or similar expressions to identify these forward-looking statements. These statements appear throughout this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and are statements regarding our current expectation, belief or intent, primarily with respect to our operations and related industry developments. Examples of these statements include, but are not limited to, statements regarding the following: our business and scientific strategies; the progress of our and our collaborators’ product development programs, including clinical testing, and the timing of results thereof; our corporate collaborations and revenues that may be received from our collaborations and the timing of those potential payments; our expectations with respect to regulatory submissions and approvals; our drug discovery technologies; our research and development expenses; protection of our intellectual property; sufficiency of our cash and capital resources and the need for additional capital; and our operations and legal risks. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements for many reasons, including as a result of the risks and uncertainties discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in Item 1A of Part II of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which it is made, and we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which the statement is made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. New factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict which factors will arise. In addition, we cannot assess the impact of each factor on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements.

 

Overview

 

We are a clinical-stage biotechnology company dedicated to the discovery and development of novel, targeted drugs in the therapeutic areas of immunology, oncology and immuno-oncology. Our pioneering research focuses on signaling pathways that are critical to disease mechanisms. Our current clinical programs include fostamatinib, an oral spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) inhibitor, which is in Phase 3 clinical trials for immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP); a Phase 2 clinical trial for autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA); and a Phase 2 clinical trial for IgA nephropathy (IgAN). In addition, we have two oncology product candidates in Phase 1 development with partners BerGenBio AS and Daiichi Sankyo.

 

Product Development Programs

 

Our product development portfolio features multiple novel, targeted drug candidates in the therapeutic areas of immunology, oncology and immuno-oncology. 

 

Recent Developments

 

Change in Executive Team. On March 7, 2016, Elliott Grossbard, M.D., resigned from his position as our Chief Medical Officer (CMO), and on June 30, 2016, Dr. Grossbard retired as an employee of the Company after 14 years. Dr. Grossbard will remain with the Company as a consultant, advising on the new drug application (NDA) filing and regulatory strategy for fostamatinib in ITP. Anne-Marie Duliege, M.D., M.S. assumed the role of CMO of the Company on March 7, 2016.

 

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Clinical Stage Programs

 

Fostamatinib—Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura

 

Disease background.  Chronic ITP affects an estimated 60,000 to 125,000 people in the U.S. In patients with ITP, the immune system attacks and destroys the body’s own blood platelets, which play an active role in blood clotting and healing. ITP patients can suffer extraordinary bruising, bleeding and fatigue as a result of low platelet counts. Current therapies for ITP include steroids, blood platelet production boosters that imitate thrombopoietin (TPOs) and splenectomy.

 

Orally-available SYK inhibitor program.  Taken in tablet form, fostamatinib blocks the activation of SYK inside immune cells. ITP causes the body to produce antibodies that attach to healthy platelets in the blood stream. Immune cells recognize these antibodies and affix to them, which activates the SYK enzyme inside the immune cell, and triggers the destruction of the antibody and the attached platelet. When SYK is inhibited by fostamatinib, it interrupts this immune cell function and allows the platelets to escape destruction. The results of our Phase 2 clinical trial, in which fostamatinib was orally administered to sixteen adults with chronic ITP, published in Blood, showed that fostamatinib significantly increased the platelet counts of certain ITP patients, including those who had failed other currently available agents.

 

In October 2013, we met with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for an end-of-Phase 2 meeting for fostamatinib in ITP. Based on that meeting, we designed a Phase 3 clinical program, called fostamatinib in thrombocytopenia (FIT), in which a total of 150 ITP patients were randomized into two identical multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. The patients will have been diagnosed with persistent or chronic ITP, and have blood platelet counts consistently below 30,000 per microliter of blood. Two-thirds of the subjects will receive fostamatinib orally at 100 mg bid (twice daily) and the other third will receive placebo on the same schedule. Subjects are expected to remain on treatment for 24 weeks. At week four of treatment, subjects who meet certain platelet count and tolerability thresholds will have their dosage of fostamatinib (or corresponding placebo) increased to 150 mg bid. The primary efficacy endpoint of this program is a stable platelet response by week 24 with platelet counts at or above 50,000 per microliter of blood for at least four of the final six qualifying blood draws. In August 2015, the FDA granted our request for Orphan Drug designation to fostamatinib, our oral SYK inhibitor, for the treatment of ITP. On April 1, 2016, we announced that we have completed enrollment for both studies in the FIT Phase 3 clinical program of fostamatinib in ITP. The results from the first study are expected by the end of August 2016, with the results for the second study expected a few months later. We plan to submit a New Drug Application to the FDA in the first quarter of 2017,  subject to the positive results of the program. 

 

Fostamatinib—IgAN

 

Disease background.  IgAN is an autoimmune disease that severely affects the functioning of the kidneys. An estimated 12,000 Americans are diagnosed with this type of glomerulonephritis each year, with 25% of its victims eventually requiring dialysis and/or kidney transplantation over time. IgAN is characterized by the deposition of IgA immune complexes in the glomeruli of the kidneys leading to an inflammatory response and subsequent tissue damage that ultimately disrupts the normal filtering function of the kidneys. By inhibiting SYK in kidney cells, fostamatinib may block the signaling of IgA immune complex receptors and arrest or slow destruction of the glomeruli.

 

Orally-available SYK inhibitor program.    Our Phase 2 clinical trial in patients with IgAN, called SIGN (SYK Inhibition for Glomerulonephritis) completed enrollment for the first cohort and is currently enrolling patients for the second cohort.  We expect to report top line results for the first cohort by the end of 2016.    

 

Fostamatinib—AIHA

 

Disease background.  AIHA is a rare, serious blood disorder where the immune system produces antibodies that result in the destruction of the body's own red blood cells.  Symptoms can include fatigue, shortness of breath, rapid heartbeat, jaundice or enlarged spleen.  While no medical treatments are currently approved for AIHA, physicians generally treat acute and chronic cases of the disorder with corticosteroids, other immuno-suppressants, or splenectomy. 

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Research has shown that inhibiting SYK with fostamatinib may reduce the destruction of red blood cells.  This disorder affects an estimated 40,000 Americans, for whom no approved treatment options currently exist.

 

Orally available SYK inhibitor program.  We initiated a Phase 2 clinical trial in patients with AIHA in February 2016. The trial is an open-label, multi-center, two-stage study that will evaluate the efficacy and safety of fostamatinib in patients with warm antibody AIHA who have previously received treatment for the disorder, but have relapsed. Stage 1 will enroll 17 patients who will receive 150 mg of fostamatinib orally twice a day for a period of 12 weeks.  The patients will return to the clinic every two weeks for blood draws and medical assessment.  The primary efficacy endpoint of this study is to achieve increased hemoglobin levels by week 12 of greater than 10 g/dL, and greater than or equal to 2 g/dL higher than baseline. Stage 2 will include an additional 20 patients who will receive the same treatment protocol as Stage 1.  We expect to have results of the Stage 1 segment of the trial in early 2017.    With this data, we will evaluate the best way forward and potentially an expedited path for pursuing AIHA.  

 

R348—Dry Eye in Patients with Ocular Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GvHD)

 

Disease background.    According to an article published by the American Academy of Ophthalmology, a significant number (22% to 80%) of patients with acute or chronic GvHD develop a secondary incidence of dry eye (keratoconjunctivitis sicca). In general, these patients are severely ill and have a great medical need for a topical therapy that may better manage their symptoms.

 

Topical Ophthalmic JAK/SYK inhibitor program. We recently completed our Phase 2 study of patients with ocular GvHD to determine if R348, an ophthalmic JAK/SYK inhibitor, reduces inflammation and limits the damage to the eye tissue caused by the disease. The study was comprised of 30 patients that were randomized to receive either R348 at 0.2%, 0.5% or a placebo eye drops for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was a mean change from baseline at 12 weeks in total fluorescein staining score (CFS) of all corneal regions, a measure of corneal epithelial damage.  In the “per protocol” population which is the pre-specified efficacy analysis population, the mean change from baseline at 12 weeks in CFS scores was -2.11 for the placebo group, -4.14 in the R348 0.2% group (p= 0.186 versus placebo group), and -6.00 in the R348 0.5% group (p=0.053 versus placebo, using nonparametric testing). As such, the primary endpoint was not met based on the results of the study.  R348 was well tolerated by patients at both doses

 

Research/Preclinical Programs

 

We are conducting proprietary research in the broad disease areas of inflammation/immunology, immuno-oncology, cancers and muscle wasting/muscle endurance. Within each disease area, our researchers are investigating mechanisms of action as well as screening compounds against potential novel targets and optimizing those leads that appear to have the greatest potential.

 

We are conducting preclinical studies to identify a lead molecule for our IRAK program. This program may provide opportunities in both the oncology and immunology areas. We expect to file an Investigational New Drug (IND) with our molecule in the first half of 2017.

 

Leveraging our extensive immunology expertise, we are continuing to explore novel immuno-oncology approaches to treating various oncology indications. The first of these resulted in a collaboration with BMS for TGF beta receptor kinase inhibitors.  Several other projects are currently underway.

 

Sponsored Research and License Agreements

 

We conduct research and development programs independently and in connection with our corporate collaborators. We are a party to a collaboration agreement with BMS for the discovery, development and commercialization of cancer immunotherapies based on our small molecule TGF beta receptor kinase inhibitors, as discussed below. Our participation in the collaboration is limited to the Joint Research Committee and the performance of research activities based on billable full-time equivalent fees as specified in the collaboration agreement. We do not have ongoing participation obligations under our agreements with Aclaris for the development and commercialization of certain JAK inhibitors for the treatment of alopecia areata and other dermatological conditions, AZ for the development

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and commercialization of R256, an inhaled JAK inhibitor, BerGenBio for the development and commercialization of an oncology program, and Daiichi to pursue research related to a specific target from a novel class of drug targets called ligases. Under these agreements, which we entered into in the ordinary course of business, we received or may be entitled to receive upfront cash payments, progress dependent contingent payments on events achieved by such partners and royalties on any net sales of products sold by such partners under the agreements. Total future contingent payments to us under all of these current agreements could exceed $531.9 million if all potential product candidates achieved all of the payment triggering events under all of our current agreements (based on a single product candidate under each agreement). Of this amount, up to $148.8 million relates to the achievement of development events, up to $345.6 million relates to the achievement of regulatory events and up to $37.5 million relates to the achievement of certain commercial or launch events. This estimated future contingent amount does not include any estimated royalties that could be due to us if the partners successfully commercialize any of the licensed products.  Future events that may trigger payments to us under the agreements are based solely on our partners’ future efforts and achievements of specified development, regulatory and/or commercial events. Because we do not control the research, development or commercialization of the product candidates generated under these agreements, we are not able to reasonably estimate when, if at all, any contingent payments would become payable to us. As such, the contingent payments we could receive thereunder involve a substantial degree of risk to achieve and may never be received in the next 12 months or thereafter. Accordingly, we do not expect, and investors should not assume, that we will receive all of the potential contingent payments provided for under these agreements and it is possible that we may never receive any additional significant contingent payments or royalties under these agreements.

 

In October 2015, we entered into a non-exclusive license agreement with a third party, pursuant to which we received a payment in the single-digit millions in exchange for granting a non-exclusive license to certain limited intellectual property rights. We concluded that the granting of the license, which was fully delivered to such third party in the fourth quarter of 2015, represents the sole deliverable under this agreement. Accordingly, we recognized the payment as revenue during the fourth quarter of 2015.

 

In August 2015, we entered into a license agreement with Aclaris, pursuant to which Aclaris will have exclusive rights and will assume responsibility for the continued development of certain JAK inhibitor compounds for the treatment of alopecia areata and other dermatological conditions. Under the license agreement, we received a noncreditable and non-refundable upfront payment of $8.0 million in September 2015. We are also entitled to receive development and regulatory contingent fees that could exceed $80.0 million for a successful compound approved in certain indications. In addition, we are also eligible to receive tiered royalties on the net sales of any products under the agreement. We concluded that the granting of the license, which has been fully delivered to Aclaris in the third quarter of 2015, represents the sole deliverable under this agreement.  Accordingly, we recognized the $8.0 million payment as revenue during the third quarter of 2015.

 

In February 2015, we entered into a collaboration agreement with BMS for the discovery, development and commercialization of cancer immunotherapies based on our extensive portfolio of small molecule TGF beta receptor kinase inhibitors. Under the collaboration agreement, BMS will have exclusive rights and will be solely responsible for the clinical development and commercialization of any products. Pursuant to the collaboration agreement with BMS, we received a noncreditable and non-refundable upfront payment of $30.0 million in March 2015. We are also entitled to receive development and regulatory contingent fees that could exceed $309.0 million for a successful compound approved in certain indications. In addition, we are also eligible to receive tiered royalties on the net sales of any products from the collaboration. BMS shall also reimburse us for agreed upon costs based on a contractual cost per full-time equivalent employee in connection with the performance of research activities during the research term. Under the collaboration agreement, we were obligated to provide the following deliverables: (i) granting of license rights to our program, (ii) participation in the Joint Research Committee, and (iii) performance of research activities.  We concluded that these deliverables are a single unit of accounting as the license does not have stand-alone value apart from the other deliverables. Accordingly, the $30.0 million upfront payment is being recognized ratably as revenue from the effective date of the agreement through September 2016, the end of the estimated research term. We believe that straight-line recognition of this revenue is appropriate as the research is expected to be performed ratably over the research period. As of June 30, 2016, we were not notified by BMS of its intention to extend the estimated research term under which we will perform research activities.  However, BMS does continue to evaluate compounds from the extensive portfolio under the agreement, on its own, for designation of a compound as an early candidate nomination. During the three and six

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months ended June 30, 2016, we recognized revenue of $4.8 million and $9.7 million, respectively, relating to the upfront payment and $95,000 and $290,000, respectively, relating to the research activities we performed. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2015, we recognized revenue of $4.8 million and $6.9 million, respectively, relating to the upfront payment and $350,000 and $456,000, respectively, relating to the research activities we performed. As of June 30, 2016, deferred revenue related to the $30.0 million upfront payment was $3.8 million, which will be fully recognized as revenue in the third quarter of 2016.

 

In June 2011, we entered into an exclusive license agreement with BerGenBio for the development and commercialization of an oncology program. BerGenBio is responsible for all activities it wishes to perform under the license we granted to it.  In June 2016, we received contingent payments of $1.7 million relating to a time-based non-refundable fee and $2.0 million relating to BerGenBio’s exercise of certain option rights before the prescription period to exercise the rights expired. All deliverables under the agreement had been previously delivered, as such, the above payments of $3.7 million triggered by the above time-based and contingent events were recognized as revenue in the second quarter of 2016.

 

Research and Development Expenses

 

Our research and development expenditures include costs related to preclinical and clinical trials, scientific personnel, supplies, equipment, consultants, sponsored research, stock based compensation, and allocated facility costs.

 

We do not track fully burdened research and development costs separately for each of our drug candidates. We review our research and development expenses by focusing on three categories: research, development, and other. Our research team is focused on creating a portfolio of product candidates that can be developed into small molecule therapeutics in our own proprietary programs or with potential collaborative partners and utilizes our robust discovery engine to rapidly discover and validate new product candidates in our focused range of therapeutic indications. “Research” expenses relate primarily to personnel expenses, lab supplies, fees to third party research consultants and compounds. Our development group leads the implementation of our clinical and regulatory strategies and prioritizes disease indications in which our compounds may be studied in clinical trials. “Development” expenses relate primarily to clinical trials, personnel expenses, lab supplies and fees to third party research consultants. “Other” expenses primarily consist of allocated facilities costs and allocated stock based compensation expense relating to personnel in research and development groups.

 

In addition to reviewing the three categories of research and development expenses described in the preceding paragraph, we principally consider qualitative factors in making decisions regarding our research and development programs, which include enrollment in clinical trials and the results thereof, the clinical and commercial potential for our drug candidates and competitive dynamics. We also make our research and development decisions in the context of our overall business strategy, which includes the evaluation of potential collaborations for the development of our drug candidates.

 

The following table presents our total research and development expense by category (in thousands).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended 

 

Six Months Ended 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 30, 

 

June 30, 

 

From January 1, 2007*

 

 

    

2016

    

2015

    

2016

    

2015

    

to June 30, 2016

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Categories:

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

Research

 

$

5,814

 

$

5,265

 

$

12,414

 

$

10,803

 

$

208,912

 

Development

 

 

7,642

 

 

5,946

 

 

16,070

 

 

12,157

 

 

299,353

 

Other

 

 

4,012

 

 

3,848

 

 

7,157

 

 

7,801

 

 

216,522

 

 

 

$

17,468

 

$

15,059

 

$

35,641

 

$

30,761

 

$

724,787

 


*We started tracking research and development expense by category on January 1, 2007.

 

“Other” expenses mainly represent allocated facilities costs of approximately $2.6 million and $2.8 million for the three months ended June 30, 2016 and 2015, respectively, and allocated stock-based compensation expenses of

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approximately $1.4 million and $1.1 million for the three months ended June 30, 2016 and 2015, respectively. For the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2015, allocated facilities costs were approximately $5.1 million and $5.6 million, respectively, and allocated stock-based compensation expenses were approximately $2.1 million and $2.2 million, respectively. 

 

For the three and six months ended June 30, 2016, a major portion of our total research and development expense was associated with salaries of our research and development personnel, our ITP, AIHA and IgAN programs, and allocated facilities costs. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2015, a major portion of our total research and development expense was associated with our ITP and IgAN programs, salaries of our research and development personnel, and allocated facilities costs.

 

We do not have reliable estimates regarding the timing of our clinical trials. Preclinical testing and clinical development are long, expensive and uncertain processes. In general, biopharmaceutical development involves a series of steps, beginning with identification of a potential target and including, among others, proof of concept in animals and Phase 1, 2 and 3 clinical trials in humans. Significant delays in clinical testing could materially impact our product development costs and timing of completion of the clinical trials. We do not know whether planned clinical trials will begin on time, will need to be halted or revamped or will be completed on schedule, or at all. Clinical trials can be delayed for a variety of reasons, including delays in obtaining regulatory approval to commence a trial, delays from scale up, delays in reaching agreement on acceptable clinical trial agreement terms with prospective clinical sites, delays in obtaining institutional review board approval to conduct a clinical trial at a prospective clinical site or delays in recruiting subjects to participate in a clinical trial.

 

We currently do not have reliable estimates of total costs for a particular drug candidate to reach the market. Our potential products are subject to a lengthy and uncertain regulatory process that may involve unanticipated additional clinical trials and may not result in receipt of the necessary regulatory approvals. Failure to receive the necessary regulatory approvals would prevent us from commercializing the product candidates affected. In addition, clinical trials of our potential products may fail to demonstrate safety and efficacy, which could prevent or significantly delay regulatory approval. 

 

For further discussion on research and development activities, see “Research and Development Expense” under “Results of Operations” below.

 

Results of Operations

 

Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2016 and 2015

 

Revenues

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended 

 

 

 

 

Six Months Ended 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 30, 

 

Aggregate

 

June 30, 

 

Aggregate

 

 

    

2016

    

2015

    

Change

    

2016

    

2015

    

Change

 

 

 

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

 

 

 

Contract revenues from collaborations

 

$

8,594

 

$

5,184

 

$

3,410

 

$

13,623

 

$

7,362

 

$

6,261

 

 

Contract revenues from collaborations of $8.6 million during the three months ended June 30, 2016 were comprised of the amortization of the $30.0 million upfront payment and FTE fees we earned from BMS of $4.8 million and $95,000, respectively, as well as the contingent payments amounting to $3.7 million we received pursuant to our license agreement with BerGenBio.  Contract revenues from collaborations of $13.6 million during the six months ended June 30, 2016 were comprised of the amortization of the upfront payment and FTE fees we earned from BMS of $9.7 million and $290,000, respectively, as well as the contingent payments amounting to $3.7 million we received from BerGenBio. Contract revenues from collaborations of $5.2 million and $7.4 million during the three and six months ended June 30, 2015, respectively, were comprised of the amortization of the $30.0 million upfront payment and FTE fees we earned from BMS.

 

As of June 30, 2016, deferred revenue related to the $30.0 million upfront payment was $3.8 million. We expect the remaining unamortized portion of the upfront payment to be fully recognized as revenue in the third quarter of 2016.

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Our potential future revenues may include payments from our current partners and from new partners with whom we enter into agreements in the future, if any, the timing and amount of which is unknown at this time.

 

Research and Development Expense

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended 

 

 

 

 

Six Months Ended 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 30, 

 

Aggregate

 

June 30, 

 

Aggregate

 

 

    

2016

 

2015

    

Change

    

2016

 

2015

    

Change

 

 

 

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

 

 

 

Research and development expense

 

$

17,468

    

$

15,059

 

$

2,409

 

$

35,641

    

$

30,761

 

$

4,880

 

Stock-based compensation expense included in research and development expense

 

$

1,410

 

$

1,056

 

$

354

 

$

2,103

 

$

2,216

 

$

(113)

 

 

The increase in research and development expense for the three months ended June 30, 2016, compared to the same period in 2015, was primarily due to the increase in research and development costs related to our fostamatinib in ITP, AIHA and IgAN programs, as well as the increase in stock‑based compensation as discussed belowThe increase in research and development expense for the six months ended June 30, 2016, compared to the same period in 2015, was primarily due to the increase in research and development costs related to our fostamatinib in ITP, AIHA and IgAN programs.  We expect that our research and development expense will remain relatively consistent with the previous quarter as we continue to ramp up our efforts related to NDA submission and, at the same time, wind down our Phase 3 clinical trials in ITP.

 

During the quarter ended June 30, 2016, we entered into severance agreements with certain employees. As part of the severance arrangements, we extended the date through which such former employees had the right to exercise their vested options.  In addition, we also accelerated the vesting of certain unvested stock options granted to a former employeeAs a result of these modifications, we recorded incremental stock-based compensation expense in the second quarter of 2016 of $641,000. 

 

General and Administrative Expense

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended 

 

 

 

 

Six Months Ended 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 30, 

 

Aggregate

 

June 30, 

 

Aggregate

 

 

    

2016

 

2015

    

Change

    

2016

 

2015

    

Change

 

 

 

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

 

 

 

General and administrative expense

 

$

4,774

    

$

4,099

 

$

675

 

$

9,197

    

$

8,816

 

$

381

 

Stock-based compensation expense included in general and administrative expense

 

$

604

 

$

853

 

$

(249)

 

$

1,349

 

$

1,747

 

$

(398)

 

 

The increase in general and administrative expense for the three and six months ended June 30, 2016, compared to the same periods in 2015, was primarily due the increase in recruitment costs for certain personnel, as well as increase in consulting fees and facility costs. This was partially offset by the decrease in stock-based compensation expense due mainly to the full recognition of stock-based compensation expense related to certain performance-based stock options granted in the prior years.    

 

Interest Income

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended 

 

 

 

Six Months Ended 

 

 

 

 

 

June 30, 

 

Aggregate

 

June 30, 

 

Aggregate

 

 

    

2016

 

2015

    

Change

    

2016

 

2015

    

Change

 

 

 

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

 

 

 

Interest income

 

$

115

    

$

62

 

$

53

 

$

218

    

$

110

 

$

108

 

 

Interest income results from our interest-bearing cash and investment balances. The increase in interest income for the three months and six months ended June 30, 2016, as compared to the same periods in 2015 was primarily due to the higher yield on our investments.

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Critical Accounting Policies and the Use of Estimates

 

Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based upon our financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (U.S. GAAP). The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. We evaluate our estimates, including those related to our stock based compensation, impairment issues, the estimated useful life of assets, estimated research term on our collaboration agreement with BMS, and estimated accruals, particularly research and development accruals, on an ongoing basis. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. We believe that there have been no significant changes in our critical accounting policies and estimates disclosed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2015, as filed with the SEC.

 

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

 

In August 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-15—Disclosure of Uncertainties about an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern under ASC Subtopic 205-40, Presentation of Financial Statements—Going Concern.  ASU No. 2014-15 provides guidance about management’s responsibility to evaluate whether there is substantial doubt about an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern and to provide related footnote disclosures. Management’s evaluation should be based on relevant conditions and events that are known and reasonably knowable at the date that the financial statements are issued (or at the date that the financial statements are available to be issued when applicable). Substantial doubt about an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern exists when relevant conditions and events, considered in the aggregate, indicate that it is probable that the entity will be unable to meet its obligations as they become due within one year after the date that the financial statements are issued (or available to be issued). ASU No. 2014-15 is effective for the annual period ending after December 15, 2016 and early adoption is permitted. We plan to adopt this new standard in our annual financial statements for the year ending December 31, 2016. We will continue to evaluate the guidance under ASU No. 2014-15 and present the required disclosures within our financial statements at the time of adoption. The actual impact will be dependent upon our liquidity and the nature or significance of future events or conditions that exist upon the adoption of this new standard.

 

In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09—Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which supersedes the revenue recognition requirements under ASC Topic 605, Revenue Recognition, and most industry-specific guidance under the ASC. The core principle of ASU No. 2014-09 is that an entity should recognize revenue when it transfers promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. ASU No. 2014-09 defines a five step process to achieve this core principle and, in doing so, it is possible more judgment and estimates may be required within the revenue recognition process than required under existing U.S. GAAP including identifying performance obligations in the contract, estimating the amount of variable consideration to include in the transaction price and allocating the transaction price to each separate performance obligation. ASU No. 2014-09 also requires additional disclosures to enable users of financial statements to understand the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from customer contracts. ASU No. 2014-09 allows for either full retrospective or modified retrospective adoption, and we have not yet determined which approach we will apply. In July 2015, the FASB deferred by one year the effective date of ASU No. 2014-09 with the new effective date beginning after December 15, 2017, and the interim periods within that year and will allow early adoption for all entities as of the original effective date for public business entities, which was annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016. We plan to adopt this new standard on January 1, 2018. We are currently evaluating the potential impact of the adoption of ASU No. 2014-09 on our financial statements and cannot estimate the impact of adoption at this time.

 

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02—Leases, which is aimed at making leasing activities more transparent, and requires substantially all leases be recognized by lessees on their balance sheet as a right-of-use asset and corresponding lease liability, including leases currently accounted for as operating leases. The guidance is

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effective for all interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted. We plan to adopt this new standard on January 1, 2019.  We are currently evaluating the potential impact of the adoption of ASU No. 2016-02 on our financial statements and cannot estimate the impact of adoption at this time.

 

In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09—Stock Compensation, which is intended to simplify several aspects of the accounting for share-based payment award transactions, including the income tax consequences, an option to recognize gross stock compensation expense with actual forfeitures recognized as they occur, as well as certain classifications on the statement of cash flows.  The guidance will be effective for the fiscal year beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within that year. We plan to adopt this new standard on January 1, 2017. We are currently evaluating the potential impact of the adoption of ASU No. 2016-09 on our financial statements and cannot estimate the impact of adoption at this time.

 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

Cash Requirements